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DINAMIKA KALIUM DALAM TANAH

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  1. DINAMIKA KALIUM DALAM TANAH SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  2. Dinamika K dalam Tanah Introduction The Potassium Cycle Forms of Potassium in soil Ketersediaan K dalamtanah Manajemen K tanah SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  3. Pendahuluan • K is the third most likely element after nitrogen and phosphorus to limit plant productivity. • Biasanyadiaplikasikansebagaipupuk • K adadalamlarutantanahsebagaikationK+ • K tidakmembentuk gas yang hilangkeudara SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  4. Pendahuluan • Its behavior in soil is influenced more by cation exchange reactions than by microbiological processes • K tidakmenyebabkanpencemaranlingkunganeksternal • K tidaktoksikdantidakmenyebabkanproblematikeutrofikasi SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  5. K dalamnutrisitanamandanhewan • Potassium activates many enzymes in plants and animals that are responsible for energy metabolism, photosynthesis and other processes • As a component of the cytoplasm of plant cells, it helps to lower cellular osmotic water potential thereby increasing the ability of root cells to take up water. SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  6. K dalamnutrisitanamandanhewan • K sangatpentinguntukfiksasi nitrogen pada legume • Kecukupan K telahterbuktimembantutanamanberadaptasiterhadapcekamanlingkungan • In animals including humans, K is important in regulating the nervous system and maintenance of good blood vessels. SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  7. GejalaDefisiensi K • Mengurangikemampuantanamanuntukberadaptasiterhadapcekamamlingkunganmis. Kekeringan, Genanganbanjir, dll. • Pucukdantepiandaunmenguning (chlorosis) dankemudianmati (nekrosis). • In some crops, K deficiency produces white necrotic spots that looks like insect damage. SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  8. Siklus K SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  9. Siklus K • Sumber Original K adalah mineral primer • Mineral Mica (biotitedanmuscuvite) • Potassium feldspar (orthoclase danmicrocline) • Potassium is released from the minerals during the weathering process • When available for plant uptake, it is taken up by plants in large quantities SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  10. Siklus K • Dalamekosistemalamiah, K is returned to the soil by rainwater leaching of foliage and by plant residue or as waste from animals that feed on plant • Potassium is lost by soil erosion and runoff, and leaching to the groundwater • Most potassium in agricultural ecosystems are lost through removal of crops and crop residues from soil SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  11. Bentuk-bentuk K dalamtanah • Empatbentuk K dalamtanahadalah: • K dalamstruktur mineral primer • K dalamposisitidakdapatditukardalam mineral sekunder • K in exchangeable form on soil colloid surfaces • K ions larutdalam air • Total K in soil and its distribution as shown in the K-cycle is a function of the clay minerals present in soil SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  12. Ketersediaanbentuk-bentuk K SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  13. Fiksasi K olehKoloid Tanah Nonexchangeable-K  Exchangeable-K  Soil Solution-K SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  14. FaktorKetersediaan K dalamtanah • TipeKoloid Tanah Ability of various colloids to fix K varies (2:1) • Pembasahan & Pengeringan Tanah Physically affects the structure of colloids • Pembekuan & Pencairan Tanah Physically affects the structure of colloids • Kemasamantanah (pH) High pH increases the fixation of K because of less H+ and Al3+ at exchange sites. SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  15. Problem K dalamKesuburan Tanah SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  16. PengelolaanKalium • The main problem with managing soil K is that of converting the unavailable forms of the element to available forms • Available K is usually supplemented by fertilization • Another problem is removing a lot of crops from the soil without returning the crop residues • Attempts should be made to return as much residue as possible for the natural plant-soil cycling of K to continue SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  17. PengelolaanKalium • Growing high K content plants places demand on the soil supply of potassium • To have high yields of such crops, e.g., alfalfa, it needs to planned in advance to supply soil with enough K to last the cropping season –fertilization • Pemupukandengandosisringandanseringternyatalebihbaikdaripadadosistinggisekaliaplikasi, halinidapatmengurangikonsumsimewah K • Pengapurantanahternyatameningkatkanretensi K dalamatanah. SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

  18. Kalium Tanah Efek status K-tanahthdhasiltanamandanefisiensipupuk N (JOHNSTON et al., 2001) SUMBER: http://www.ipipotash.org/en/presentn/aspcwdb.php ‎

  19. Kalium Tanah Respontanamanthd K dalampercobaanjangkapanjang (1949-91)(MERBACH et al., 1999) SUMBER: http://www.ipipotash.org/en/presentn/aspcwdb.php ‎

  20. Kalium Tanah Sikluskaliumdalamsistemtanah-tanaman-ternak (SYERS, 1998) SUMBER: http://www.ipipotash.org/en/presentn/aspcwdb.php ‎

  21. Kalium Tanah Bentuk-bentuk K-tanahdanketersediaannyabagitanaman. SUMBER: http://www.depi.vic.gov.au/agriculture-and-food/dairy/pastures-management/fertilising-dairy-pastures/what-nutrients-do-plants-require ‎

  22. SiklusKaliumdalam Tanah Status K-tanahmempengaruhipenyerapan K olehakartanaman. Jumlah K dalamtanahtergantungpadatipe-tanah, produksitanaman, retensiataupanenbiomasaresidutanaman, pemupukan K danirigasi. SUMBER: http://www.ipipotash.org/en/eifc/2011/29/3 ‎

  23. Kalium Tanah Penyerapan NO3-olehakartanamandikendalikanolehhasilreduksi NO3-dalamtanamandansiklus K+dalamtanaman. SUMBER: Ben Zioni et al., 1971; Physiolgia Plantarum 24:288-290.

  24. Kalium Tanah Model mineral liattipe 1:2 (illite) yang menunjukkanposisipenjerapan K+ SUMBER: http://www.intechopen.com/books/soil-processes-and-current-trends-in-quality-assessment/potassium-in-soils-of-glacial-origin ‎

  25. Kalium Tanah Model pelepasan K dalamprosespelapukan mineral primer tanah SUMBER: http://www.intechopen.com/books/soil-processes-and-current-trends-in-quality-assessment/potassium-in-soils-of-glacial-origin ‎

  26. Kalium Tanah Kesetimbanganbentuk-bentuk K dalamtanah. SUMBER: http://people.umass.edu/psoil120/guide/chapter7.htm ‎

  27. SiklusKalium Tanah Sekitar 90 -98 % total K dalamtanahdalambentukineral primer tidak-larut, mineral inithaanterhadappelpaukankimiawi. Pelepasan K dari mineral primer inisangatlambat, danjumlahnyasangatkecildibandingkandnegankebutuhantanaman. SUMBER: http://www.cropnutrition.com/efu-potassium#in-soil ‎

  28. Kalium Tanah K dalamlarutantanahmudahdiserapolehakartanaman. K-larutantanah ini jumlahnya sangat kecil. Uji K untuk larutan tanahtidakmencerminkan total K yang tersediabagitanaman. SUMBER: http://www.smart-fertilizer.com/articles/potassium-in-soil ‎

  29. Kalium Tanah Faktorpenyerapan K olehtanaman: KandunganOksigen Tanah – oxygen is necessary for proper root function, including uptake of potassium Air tanah - the more moisture found in the soil, the easier it is for plants to absorb potassium. Olah-tanah – research has shown that regularly tilled soil allows for better potassium uptake. Suhu Tanah – 60-80 degrees Fahrenheit is the ideal soil temperature range for root activity and most of the physiological processes in plants. The lower the temperature, the slower absorption becomes. SUMBER: http://www.smart-fertilizer.com/articles/potassium-in-soil ‎

  30. SiklusKalium Tanah SUMBER: http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/agr/agr11/agr11.htm ‎

  31. FiksasiKaliumoleh mineral liat Tanah SUMBER: http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/agr/agr11/agr11.htm ‎