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Americans on the European Front Notes. Angela Brown Chapter 10 Section 3. 20war%20%20pages/great%20war%20map%2001.htm.

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americans on the european front notes

Americans on the European Front Notes

Angela Brown

Chapter 10 Section 3





preparing for action

Preparing for Action
  • Despite preparedness U.S. not ready to send troops to European front in April 1917.
  • Sent naval support, supplies, arms, $3 billion in loans, and a token force of 14,500 men led by General Pershing to boost allied morale.
  • Pershing recommended army should number 1 million by 1918 and 3 million by 1919.
draftees and volunteers
Draftees and Volunteers
  • 1917 – U.S. 120,000 enlisted men and 80,000 national guardsmen
  • May 1917 Congress passed a Selective Service Act authorizing a draft of young men for military services
  • “War to end all Wars” resulted in wide acceptance of program
Nov 1918 – 24 million men registered for draft.
  • A lottery picked 3 million draftees
  • Draftees, volunteers, National Guardsmen made up American Expeditionary Force (AEF).

  • 11,000 women volunteered in uniform as nurses, drivers, and clerks
  • Another 14,000 women served abroad as civilians working for the government or for private agencies.

the convoy system
The Convoy System
  • U.S. troops were kept separate from allied troops and the more than 300,000 African American Soldiers
  • (4,000 African American troops killed/wounded most never saw combat)
  • Marines refused African Americans completely/navy minor tasks/ Army manual labor – frustrated African Americans
369th infantry – Harlem Hell Fighters – officers agreed to loan to French Army who integrated regiment
  • Received highest combat medal –French Croix de Guerre

turning the tide of war

Turning The Tide of War
  • Nov 1917, Bolsheviks, followers of Vladimir Lenin, violently overthrew Russia’s government.
  • Lenin promised peace with Germany if in control.
  • Germany aided his return from Switzerland
March 3, 1918 – Lenin made peace with Germany.
  • Freed Germany from two- front war
  • turned all energy toward French
  • British lines (broke through – 50 miles from Paris by June 3)
americans save paris
Americans Save Paris
  • Brigadier General, James G. Harbord, stated “We dig no trenches to fall back on. The marines will hold where they stand.”
  • Blunted edge of German advance, began to turn the tide of war – lost ½ of troops
allied counterattack
Allied Counterattack
  • Used new weapon… the tank
  • Aug. 8, Battle of Amiens, Allies stopped German advance once and for all.
  • Allies insisted on total surrender.
  • Allies used airplanes to drop bombs, aerial dogfights, “Aces”.
  • Bombing raids would become a devastating weapon in the future.


the red baron
The Red Baron
  • Rittmeister Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen
  • In a time of wooden and fabric aircraft, when twenty air victories insured a pilot legendary status and the coveted Pour Le Mérite (the famous "Blue Max") , Richthofen had eighty victories, and is regarded to this day as the ace of aces.


corporal alvin york

Corporal Alvin York
  • York, TN mountains, turkey hunter
  • Applied to be classified conscientious objector.
  • Someone who refuses to serve in the military because of religious beliefs, denied, drafted.
  • Took part in Meuse-Argonne offensive (final allied assault – 1 million AEF)
Patrol tried to destroy German machine gun nest.
  • lost ½ troops the remainder took cover
  • York continued on his own.
  • killed 25 and captured 132 German soldiers
  • (Congressional Medal of Honor – French Croix de Guerre)
ending the war

Ending the War
  • Armistice, or ceasefire – Kaiser fled to Holland
  • Nov 11, 1918 guns fell silent
  • 500,000 Americans died in Battle
  • Many more of disease…Influenza
  • (Red Cross – nurses reduced # a great deal)

Total death toll – 8 million soldiers/sailors – averages 5,000 soldiers a day
  • Most of fighting took place in Europe – battles in Africa and the Middle East
  • Millions of civilians died – starvation, disease, or war-related injuries
Genocide – organized killing of an entire people
  • Ottoman forces deported and murdered Armenians (suspected of disloyalty to government) continued into early 20s.