Opportunistic infection Bryan Smith & ImaniPyles
What is it? • An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by: • pathogens, particularly opportunistic pathogens (bacterial, viral, fungal or protozoan) that usually do not cause disease in a healthy host • A compromised immune system, however, presents an "opportunity" for the pathogen to infect.
Causes • Malnutrition • Recurrent infections • Immunosuppressing agents for organ transplant recipients • Advanced HIV infection • Chemotherapy for cancer • Genetic predisposition • Skin damage • Antibiotictreatment • Medical procedures • Pregnancy
Types of Infection • Acinetobacter baumanni • Aspergillus sp. • Candida albicans • Clostridium difficile • Cryptococcus neoformans • Cryptosporidium • Cytomegalovirus • Histoplasma capsulatum • Isospora belli • Polyomavirus JC polyomavirus, the virus that causes Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. • Kaposi's Sarcoma caused by Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), also called Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) • Microsporidium • Pneumocystis jirovecii, previously known as Pneumocystis carinii f. hominis • Pseudomonas aeruginosa • Staphylococcus aureus • Streptococcus pyogenes • Toxoplasma gondii
Hyperbaric chamber • Hyper" means increased and "baric" relates to pressure. • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) thus refers to intermittent treatment of the entire body with 100-percent oxygen at greater than normal atmospheric pressures.
Hyperbaric chamber • greatly increases oxygen concentration in all body tissues, even with reduced or blocked blood flow • stimulates the growth of new blood vessels to locations with reduced circulation, improving blood flow to areas with arterial blockage • causes a rebound arterial dilation after HBOT, resulting in an increased blood vessel diameter greater than when therapy began, improving blood flow to compromised organs • stimulates an adaptive increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), one of the body's principal, internally produced antioxidants and free radical scavengers • aids the treatment of infection by enhancing white blood cell action and potentiating germ-killing antibiotics.