Joseph Hardin Mujoresearch.org Ontario College of Art and Design. Open Scholarship in the Early 21st Century. Open Scholarship. Ian talked about a number of “Open” efforts Open Source Software like Sakai Open Access to scholarly work Open Data to improve scientific processes
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Ian talked about a number of “Open” efforts
Open Source Software like Sakai
Open Access to scholarly work
Open Data to improve scientific processes
Open CourseWare and Open Educational Resources
Open CourseWare and Open Educational Resources
Recent research on OCW/OER among faculty and students
The recent interest in Open Teaching in the form of MOOCs
How OER and MOOCs build on each other
How a commitment to Open Initiatives can become part of education's Core Business, and can move us forward in the coming years
An ongoing series of studies looking at what faculty and students think about OCW/OER and whether or not they plan to use or contribute
Do they see some aspects of OCW as valuable?
Would they use OCW?
Would faculty contribute their own course materials to a local OCW site?
55% to 92% would use Open CourseWare in their class materials
72% to 87% of students would use OCW materials in their studies.
45% to 86% would contribute their course materials to local OCW site.
Younger faculty more willing
To Publish OCW
More Time as Faculty
Statistically significant, increasingly positive correlation between familiarity and intention to contribute for Tenure-track, Clinical, Lecturer faculty (older instructors)
The more faculty know about OCW/OER the more interest in it they have, and the more willing they are to participate.
We will see this in Open Teaching/MOOCs also.
Now, what about Open Teaching, and how does OCW/OER relate to MOOC creation?
First, How is a MOOC different from traditional Distance Education?
Graphic: John Seely Brown
Graphic: John Seely Brown
When you think about the emergence of social tools or media or applications, you are seeing the power of Person To Person (P2P) methods
Finding each other... one of the powers of the net
Then working with, helping, learning from, impressing, motivating each other
Think of what makes FaceBook, or WikiPedia work – finding a group of people with similar interests, and letting/helping them participate
Students learn by interacting with other students
“the discussion lists were the most important part of the experience” - (Johns Hopkins MOOC teacher)
“The ones I have study groups with people, those are the ones I finish,”(MOOC student)
We've always known that students teach each other – study groups, recitations
“Even more remarkable were the 270 self-directed teams that formed to work on their course projects and share ideas.” (Stanford MOOC)
In a MOOC you can always find someone to help you over a learning hurdle – P2P learning
Where before you had 10-50 possible partner participants,
now you have 500-5,000-10,000
Building the culture for one prepares the ground for the other.
John Seely Brown
Participating in Open activities can change faculty minds – we saw this in OCW, so it is with MOOCs
By the time his six-week course was over, the Princeton professor had changed his mind about what online education could do. Mr. Sedgewick now classifies himself as "very enthusiastic" about virtual teaching, and believes that soon "every person's education will have a significant online component."
“Nearly one-third of professors surveyed were "somewhat" or "very" skeptical about online-only courses before teaching a MOOC. Now more than 90 percent are enthusiastic about online classes.”
And, remember, these teachers usually had NO previous experience with online teaching. See above.
In May 2012, when the presidents of Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology announced that they would enter the MOOC fray with $60-million to start edX, they were emphatic that their agenda was to improve, not supplant, classroom education.
"Online education is not an enemy of residential education," said Susan Hockfield, president of MIT at the time, from a dais at a hotel in Cambridge, "but an inspiring and liberating ally."
MIT and Harvard see this as crucial to their educational future - it’s worth the investment to see where this goes, and be on the leading edge of it
They see it as Core Business effort
Open Teaching also has other clients
"What we need to bear in mind is that the MOOCs are trying to make better quality education available to a great mass of people who are currently “non-consumers” of education and such quality is currently superior by far to whatever they may be getting right now.
The MOOCs are not aimed to people who are willing to cheat but to those willing to learn."
Wayan Vota via Steven Downs
EdX releases Open Source under AGPL - open service stipulation; must release modified service under AGPL - “service provider copyleft”
In March 2013, EdX, (the nonprofit MOOC platform from MIT and Harvard) released part of its code under an open source license. The OSS Watch blog reported:
EdX, the nonprofit organization set up by MIT and Harvard to provide a MOOC platform, released part of its code under an open source license – the Affero GPL.
This is a form of “service provider copyleft” that ensures that EdX will have access to any improvements on their platform used by third parties.
Otherwise you could use the software to provide an online service and, never 'releasing' the software, just using it, not have to contribute changes back to the commons
MOOC development pushing on open innovative boundaries in many ways, including open source licensing
In a major step for MOOCs, the first five courses were evaluated and deemed worthy for credit by the American Council on Education in February. About 2,000 colleges and universities consider the organization’s recommendations in determining whether to use online courses.
Dr. Agarwal predicts that “a year from now, campuses will give credit for people with edX certificates.” He expects students will one day arrive on campus with MOOC credits the way they do now with Advanced Placement.
An open culture is becoming more and more important – to provide best services, to anticipate the future
Faculty are ready to participate in OCW/OER and that will increase their desire for participation in the future – same for MOOCs
Building a “Culture of Contribution” is good business for HE
And, there are open resources to help with that, including doing your own surveys
Research - Understanding and giving voice to your own community of scholars on Open issues
Gather your own data and make it open – from your own campuses and OER/MOOC efforts
These efforts help us understand and generate the local culture of contribution
They provide resources for local innovation efforts and contribute to the global conversation
Maintaining leadership in educational futures will require looking at Open Initiatives as Core Business