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Open Scholarship in the Early 21st Century

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Joseph Hardin Ontario College of Art and Design. Open Scholarship in the Early 21st Century. Open Scholarship. Ian talked about a number of “Open” efforts Open Source Software like Sakai Open Access to scholarly work Open Data to improve scientific processes

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joseph hardin mujoresearch org ontario college of art and design
Joseph Hardin

Ontario College of Art and Design

Open Scholarship in the Early 21st Century
open scholarship
Open Scholarship

Ian talked about a number of “Open” efforts

Open Source Software like Sakai

Open Access to scholarly work

Open Data to improve scientific processes

Open CourseWare and Open Educational Resources

Open Textbooks

Open Teaching

focus of this talk
Focus Of This Talk

Open CourseWare and Open Educational Resources

Recent research on OCW/OER among faculty and students

The recent interest in Open Teaching in the form of MOOCs

How OER and MOOCs build on each other

How a commitment to Open Initiatives can become part of education's Core Business, and can move us forward in the coming years

ocw faculty studies
OCW - Faculty Studies

An ongoing series of studies looking at what faculty and students think about OCW/OER and whether or not they plan to use or contribute

Do they see some aspects of OCW as valuable?

Would they use OCW?

Would faculty contribute their own course materials to a local OCW site?


The Four Surveys

  • Danubius University of Galati, Romania
    • Severin Bumbaru,
    • Andy Pușcă,
  • Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain
    • Aristóteles Cañero,
  • University of Cape Town, South Africa
    • Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams,
    • Glenda Cox,
  • University of Michigan, USA
    • Joseph Hardin,




Instructor Potential Use

55% to 92% would use Open CourseWare in their class materials



Student Potential Use

72% to 87% of students would use OCW materials in their studies.



Intention to Contribute/Publish – Teaching Staff

45% to 86% would contribute their course materials to local OCW site.



Teacher Contribution











'Contribution Willingness' vs 'Time as Faculty'UM 2010 survey

Younger faculty more willing

More Willing

To Publish OCW

More Time as Faculty


participation increases interest
Participation increases Interest

Statistically significant, increasingly positive correlation between familiarity and intention to contribute for Tenure-track, Clinical, Lecturer faculty (older instructors)

The more faculty know about OCW/OER the more interest in it they have, and the more willing they are to participate.

We will see this in Open Teaching/MOOCs also.


Key Survey Results

  • There is a considerable base of support among teaching staff at schools for OCW use and contribution
  • Participation increases interest – virtuous circle

Now, what about Open Teaching, and how does OCW/OER relate to MOOC creation?

First, How is a MOOC different from traditional Distance Education?


social p2p
“Social” = P2P

When you think about the emergence of social tools or media or applications, you are seeing the power of Person To Person (P2P) methods

Finding each other... one of the powers of the net

Then working with, helping, learning from, impressing, motivating each other

Think of what makes FaceBook, or WikiPedia work – finding a group of people with similar interests, and letting/helping them participate

moocs experiences
MOOCs Experiences

Students learn by interacting with other students

“the discussion lists were the most important part of the experience” - (Johns Hopkins MOOC teacher)

“The ones I have study groups with people, those are the ones I finish,”(MOOC student)

We've always known that students teach each other – study groups, recitations

“Even more remarkable were the 270 self-directed teams that formed to work on their course projects and share ideas.” (Stanford MOOC)

In a MOOC you can always find someone to help you over a learning hurdle – P2P learning

moocs amplify p2p
MOOCs Amplify P2P

Where before you had 10-50 possible partner participants,

now you have 500-5,000-10,000

ocw oer foundation of moocs
OCW/OER Foundation of MOOCs

Building the culture for one prepares the ground for the other.

John Seely Brown

survey of mooc teachers original video oer mooc
Survey of MOOC TeachersOriginal video +OER=MOOC

changing minds by participation
Changing Minds By Participation

Participating in Open activities can change faculty minds – we saw this in OCW, so it is with MOOCs

By the time his six-week course was over, the Princeton professor had changed his mind about what online education could do. Mr. Sedgewick now classifies himself as "very enthusiastic" about virtual teaching, and believes that soon "every person's education will have a significant online component."

“Nearly one-third of professors surveyed were "somewhat" or "very" skeptical about online-only courses before teaching a MOOC. Now more than 90 percent are enthusiastic about online classes.”

this also reflects back on classroom teaching
This also reflects back on classroom teaching

And, remember, these teachers usually had NO previous experience with online teaching. See above.

goal also to improve residential ed
Goal Also to Improve Residential Ed

In May 2012, when the presidents of Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology announced that they would enter the MOOC fray with $60-million to start edX, they were emphatic that their agenda was to improve, not supplant, classroom education.

"Online education is not an enemy of residential education," said Susan Hockfield, president of MIT at the time, from a dais at a hotel in Cambridge, "but an inspiring and liberating ally."

MIT and Harvard see this as crucial to their educational future - it’s worth the investment to see where this goes, and be on the leading edge of it

They see it as Core Business effort

moocs for non consumers
MOOCs for “non-consumers”

Open Teaching also has other clients

"What we need to bear in mind is that the MOOCs are trying to make better quality education available to a great mass of people who are currently “non-consumers” of education and such quality is currently superior by far to whatever they may be getting right now.

The MOOCs are not aimed to people who are willing to cheat but to those willing to learn."

Wayan Vota via Steven Downs

mooc as open source using agpl
MOOC as Open Source using AGPL

EdX releases Open Source under AGPL - open service stipulation; must release modified service under AGPL - “service provider copyleft”

In March 2013, EdX, (the nonprofit MOOC platform from MIT and Harvard) released part of its code under an open source license. The OSS Watch blog reported:

EdX, the nonprofit organization set up by MIT and Harvard to provide a MOOC platform, released part of its code under an open source license – the Affero GPL.

This is a form of “service provider copyleft” that ensures that EdX will have access to any improvements on their platform used by third parties.

Otherwise you could use the software to provide an online service and, never 'releasing' the software, just using it, not have to contribute changes back to the commons

MOOC development pushing on open innovative boundaries in many ways, including open source licensing

credit is coming
Credit is coming

In a major step for MOOCs, the first five courses were evaluated and deemed worthy for credit by the American Council on Education in February. About 2,000 colleges and universities consider the organization’s recommendations in determining whether to use online courses.

Dr. Agarwal predicts that “a year from now, campuses will give credit for people with edX certificates.” He expects students will one day arrive on campus with MOOC credits the way they do now with Advanced Placement.

conclusions from overview
Conclusions from Overview

An open culture is becoming more and more important – to provide best services, to anticipate the future

Faculty are ready to participate in OCW/OER and that will increase their desire for participation in the future – same for MOOCs

Building a “Culture of Contribution” is good business for HE

And, there are open resources to help with that, including doing your own surveys

building the culture
Building the Culture

Research - Understanding and giving voice to your own community of scholars on Open issues

Gather your own data and make it open – from your own campuses and OER/MOOC efforts

These efforts help us understand and generate the local culture of contribution

They provide resources for local innovation efforts and contribute to the global conversation

Maintaining leadership in educational futures will require looking at Open Initiatives as Core Business