North American Societies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Chapter 16 Section 1 North American Societies

  2. Key Terms • Potlatch • Anasazi • Pueblo • Mississippian • Iroquois • Totem

  3. Complex Societies in the West • North American Societies less developed than South • Had complex societies • Conduct long distance trade

  4. Cultures of Abundance • Oregon to Alaska rich in resources • Most important resource was the sea • Hunted whales in canoes • Potlatch-give food, drink and gifts to the community (rank and prosperity)

  5. Accomplished Builders • Southwest- drier desert lands • Hohokoam of central Arizona were farmers • Used irrigation • Squash • Beans • Corn • Used pottery instead of baskets

  6. Accomplished Builders • Anasazi-lived in four corners region (Utah) • Built cliff dwellings • Mesa Verde Colorado • 900’s lived in pueblos • Villages of large apartment style compounds • Made of stone or sun baked clay

  7. Accomplished Builders • Pueblo Bonita the largest means beautiful village • Required high degree of organization and inventiveness • Human labor quarried sandstone • Used mud like mortar

  8. Accomplished Builders • Some walls 5 stories tall • Windows small to keep out burning sun • Housed 1000 people • Had 600 rooms • Kivas-underground ceremonial chambers used for religious practices

  9. Accomplished Builders • Anasazi pueblos abandoned by 1200 • Hopi and Zuni used kivas (Pueblo peoples) • Created pottery and baskets • Traded corn and farm products with Plain Indians for buffalo and hides • Comanche, Kiowa, Apache were Plains tribes

  10. Mound Builders and Other Woodland Cultures • Mound builders lived east of the Mississippi River • 700BC the Adena built mounds • 200AD Hopewell built burial mounds • Filled with gifts

  11. Mound Builders • Mississippian were the last • From 800AD to the 1500’s • Thriving villages, farming and trade • Between 1000 and 1200 30,000 lived in Cahokia • Crossroads of east and west

  12. Northeastern Tribes Build Alliances • Varied cultures • Economic and cultural connection • Trade linked people in North America • Mississippian trade from Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic coast from Great Lakes to Gulf of Mexico

  13. Northwestern Tribes Build Alliances • Iroquois spoke related languages • Five tribes in upper New York form Iroquois League • Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Seneca • To promote joint defense and cooperation

  14. Religion Shapes View of Life • Believed the world around them was filed with spirits • Recognized a number of sacred spirits • Great Spirit • Spirits gave customs and rituals • Peace and harmony from practicing rituals

  15. Religion Shapes View of Life • Beliefs included a great respect for the land • Tried to alter land as little as possible • Land was sacred • Could not be bought or sold • Europeans claimed lands it caused a conflict

  16. Shared Social Patterns • Family basis of social organization • Extended family • Some organized families into clans • Some families lived together in a large house

  17. Shared Social Patterns • Totems-natural object that a can identifies with • Define behaviors in social relationships • Northwestern displayed totems on masks, boats huge poles in front of houses

  18. Shared Social Patterns • Used totem symbols in • Ritual dances • Marriages • Naming children • Planting and harvesting • Hundreds of different patterns of life