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Monitoring. Definition: A Monitor refers to a device that acts as a subjective Professional standard or reference. We do all our work based on the reference that we are listening to, so it is extremely important!!!. ROOM DESIGN. - Has an affect on the overall sound

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Monitoring

Definition:

A Monitor refers to a device that acts as a subjective Professional standard or reference.

We do all our work based on the reference that we are listening to, so it is extremely important!!!


ROOM DESIGN

- Has an affect on the overall sound

- Extreme variations in room frequency

response can lead to problems.

a) Reduce standing waves

b) Reduce Bass Buildup in corners with

Bass Traps

c) Keep room and equipment layout

symmetrical

d) Use Absorptive and Reflective surfaces

to help “shape” room’s character.


ROOM TUNING

- 2 Ways

a) alter settings on Speaker itself (either

active or passive)

b) Equalizing Monitor Amplifier feeds

a) use 1/3 octave graphic EQ

b) use calibrated microphone

(at listening position)

c) use colored noise (Pink Noise)

in conjunction with a Spectrum

Analyzer to set EQ levels


Spectrum Analyzer

Shows relative levels of

signals at various frequencies.

Can be used with Pink Noise (Equal level at all frequencies) to try and create a “flat” response

from the monitoring system.


SPEAKERS

- 2 Primary types

1) Air Suspension (No Ports)

2) Bass Reflex (Ported)


SPEAKERS

Can be “two-way” (tweeter & woofer) or

“three-way” (tweeter/midrange/woofer).

Using Multiple elements requires the use of a Crossover Network.

Crossover splits the spectrum into bands that allow proper reproduction from each driver.

Can be Active (Electronic Crossover) or passive.





POWERED SPEAKERS

- Becoming very popular today.

- 2 or 3-ways (bi-amped or tri-amped)

- Easier expandability

- No external amplifiers needed.


SPEAKER POLARITY

  • In Phase – Cones move in the same direction.

  • Out of phase – cause loss of bass (as

  • cancellation occurs…)

  • - Ways to fix: watch Colors on connectors and

  • speakers

  • colors or silver/gold/copper

  • Ribbed or notched insulation on wiring


WIRE GAUGE

  • As HEAVY as possible!

  • #18 – min for runs of 25 – 50’

  • #14 – min for runs of 50 – 100’

  • Why thicker cable?

    • Lower resistance in thicker cable

    • Higher resistance lowers damping factor

    • Causes loss of definition in LF


WHERE TO SIT???

  • As close as possible to the center of the

  • soundfield.

  • ROOM TREATMENTS???

  • - depends on the Monitors to some extent (Nearfield vs. Farfield)


ROOM TREATMENTS

  • Keep large reflections to a minimum

  • Short Reverberation Times

  • Symmetry!!!

  • Diffusers (if needed) in back of the room

  • Isolate speakers

    • Either mechanically in soffits or

    • Nearfields on Foam on console bridge


MONITOR VOLUME

  • Remember Fletcher & Munson…

  • Ideally 75 – 90 dB max…

  • Ear Fatigue WILL affect mix perceptions!


LOW END

  • LFE – stands for “Low Frequency Effect”

  • the .1 in 5.1

  • 10 dB louder at 120 Hz (Dolby) or 80 Hz (DTS)

  • Disappears in Stereo Submix of 5.1!!!

  • Subwoofers

  • Extends LF response of a system

  • Nice for Nearfields; not needed for Farfields


MONITOR CONFIGURATIONS

  • Mono

  • Stereo

  • Stereo with Subwoofer

  • QUAD

  • Surround (5.1)

  • Theatre Surround (7.1)


FARFIELD MONITORING

  • Large Drivers

  • High Levels

  • Usually Soffitted


FARFIELD MONITORING

  • Large Drivers

  • High Levels

  • Usually Soffitted


NEARFIELD MONITORING

  • Close up to mixing position

  • usually on bridge of mixing console

  • more like the End-user’s system

  • specialized types for TV/Web simulation


MONITORING IN STUDIO

  • Headphones

    • Using headphone amp/distribution system

    • Using multichannel headphone mixer

  • Speakers (for playback in studio)


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