EDUCATORS’ PERCEPTION TOWARDS MOBILE LEARNING. Nor Alley Zulkafly , Ah-Coo Koo, Tengku Putri Norishah Shariman and Mohd Nazri Zainuddin Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning SIG, ‘ iknowmedia ’ Research Centre, Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University. http://probmobile.com/mulearn/
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EDUCATORS’ PERCEPTION TOWARDS MOBILE LEARNING Nor Alley Zulkafly, Ah-Coo Koo, TengkuPutriNorishahShariman and MohdNazriZainuddin Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning SIG, ‘iknowmedia’ Research Centre, Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University. http://probmobile.com/mulearn/ Date: 19 July 2011.
Introduction • Mobile learning • is defined as teaching and learning through the facilitation of mobile technology and its environment with portable devices such as PDA, smart phone and mobile phone • promote active learning. • Extended reach of e-learning (Motiwalla, 2007) • convenience, expediency, immediacy, accessibility, individuality, and interactivity
Introduction • Learning Management System (Rismark, Sølvberg, Strømme, and Hok, 2007). • platform for web-based learning environments by enabling management, delivery and track of learning • offers flexibility and independent learning environment for students • encourage and enhance self-confidence, self-esteem and also self-motivation towards learning
Introduction • The LMS suggested were reviewed from existing MMLS system in MMU and a m-learning framework by Motiwalla (2007) • The suggestions for adoption were: Course Managements, Assessment, Discussion, Attendance, Advisory and learning tools Figure 1: A m-learning framework (Motiwalla 2007)
Introduction • Educators play an important role in promoting quality education through mobile technology. (Attawel, 2005; Daniel, 2008; Ferry, 2009) • Building teacher – student relationship • Promote critical thinking skills • Collaborative learning • Improve engagement
Introduction Figure 2: Components of mobile learning in teaching and learning environment (Danaher et al., 2009 p. 25).
Background Two factors that contribute to educational technology which are the technology resources and the educators’ perception on how to utilize it. (Robyler, 2006)
Background • A survey conducted at Open University, Malaysia showed that about 8 in 10 students, are ready to employ mobile devices in their learning activities and are expected to be ready for mobile learning within six months. (Zoraini, 2009) • The challenge to educate a new generation of students who are more technology literate. (Prensky, 2001)
Background • Educators’ experiences in MMU LMS (ie Multimedia Learning System) system used for teaching and learning. • list of educators who are actively engaged with the system was acquired from the university’ Multimedia Product Innovation Unit to ensure that the information collected will produce a detailed understanding of the current learning environment. • log in to the system more than twice a week on the assumption that lecturers have to update notes or give announcements or contact the students
Purpose & Research Question To examine the preferences and intention of educators to implement mobile learning in higher education. Guided questions are: • What are the current status of mobile usage among the educators? • What is the educators’ perception towards mobile learning? • Perception on mobile LMS in managing their teaching tasks. • What are their intention to adopt mobile learning?
The importance The results of this study can complement other studies and provide useful information for mobile learning developers to design applications which are useful for both students and educators.
Literature Review • Anaraki (2006) showed a strong reluctance expressed by 55% of the educators in Thailand on the idea of recording their lectures and spreading the videos as notes to students’ mobile devices. • Reasons are • the lack of self-confidence • more time and effort needed to make appropriate lecture materials. • Educators were also concerned about the cost of networks and devices that will affect students, besides the availability of infrastructure and resources to develop materials that provide the support-Peters (2009)
Literature Review (continue) • There is still no assurance from the educators that they will integrate mobile phones technologies in their classrooms because they feel they have to build a different and new set of skills and knowledge for using this technology in their classrooms – Ferry (2009)
Methodology • Setting of the study: • In a media-based faculty at Multimedia University in 2010 (July) • Selection of educators was based on their level of participation in MMLS. • Selected randomly those who were active and averagely active of using MMLS. • Email were sent out to invite them for an interview session. • 12 educators showed positive response and were interviewed. On average, each person – 25 minutes.
Interview Questions & Data Analysis • Formation of the questions were discussed and approved by a research method expert • Examples of question are: • What type of activities do you perform on your mobile device? • Do you like to conduct learning activity with mobile as tools in your classroom? With the assumption of free service and CMS etc • Do you have any suggestion to integrate mobile learning in MMU? • Full review on question • Data were analyzed using qualitative analysis method, eg. thematic categorization of the responses.
Findings • RQ1 : What are the current status of mobile usage among the educators? • RQ2: What is the educators’ perception towards mobile learning? • Perception on mobile LMS in managing their teaching tasks. • RQ3: What are their intention to adopt mobile learning?
RQ1: What are the current status of mobile usage among the educators? Activities (Y) Numbers of educators(X) Figure 3: Activities performed using mobile devices by educators
RQ1: What are the current status of mobile usage among the educators? (continue) • The respondents were between 20-40 years old during the interview. • Half of the respondents already own an advanced computing mobile phone (eg. iPhone, Blackberry, Nokia N97 and etc) • These respondents also categorized as active user of mobile user as they performed more than 6 features/application of their mobile devices. (eg. call, sms, browsing internet, sending receiving file via MMS or bluetooth and etc) • Full review on demographic
RQ1: What are the current status of mobile usage among the educators? (continue) • Another half of the respondents were using Symbian OS Phone mobile phone (eg Nokia 5330, Nokia 3310) • And they are consider moderate users of mobile device as they used their mobile devices moderately (less activities). • Types of mobile device owned do contribute to activities performed by the respondents. • Teaching and learning activities - none
RQ2: The educators perception towards mobile learning • The educators perceived mobile learning as a useful approach to facilitate their current teaching environment • Majority of them are likely to use mobile device features and technologies that were suggested (LMS).
RQ2: The educators perception towards mobile learning (continue) • The finding shows activities that involve the types of learning and teaching management more likely to be preferred by the educators. Figure 4: Activities preferred/likely to use by educators
Perception on mobile LMS • Activities such as taking attendance and course management system tasks like sending announcements, notes and updates appeals as very likely to be used. • Although communication activities with students can be done through mobile devices, some of the educators did not agree to use mobile device for discussion • preferred face-to-face consultation. • problem to discuss with a large number of students using the mobile device small screen.
RQ3: What are their intention to adopt mobile learning? • Relationship between intentions of adopting mobile learning with the level of usage Table 1 Relationship between intentions of adopting mobile learning with the level of usage
RQ3: What are their intention to adopt mobile learning? (continue) • Currently the educators are not fully utilizing the full potential of mobile technology for learning purposes although there were actively using it for personal used • 67% are positive toward adoption of mobile learning • Educators preferred the system to be automated so they don’t need to re-do their existing lectures notes
Discussion • A framework for art and design subject is rare in this research field, therefore some of the educators are still unsure how to utilize and integrate mobile learning into their current teaching environments. • Passion to enhance teaching and learning does not limit by the current mobile device used • Cost and type of mobile device are the major concerned to apply mobile learning.
Conclusion • Educators are willing to update their knowledge and keep up with the current technologies. • In general, educators perceived mobile environment as convenient for performing simple tasks like making announcement, scheduling and attendance taking. • Future research • More mobile learning research into LMS • inclusion of AI into LMS.
References • Attewell, J.: Mobile technologies and learning: A technology update and mlearning project summary. Learning and Skills Development Agency, London (2005), • Anaraki, R.: Assesment of mlearning: A case Study: Assumption University of Thailand. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on eLearning for Knowledge-Based Society 15(SP3), pp. 12.1--6. IJCIM, Bangkok (2007) • Daniel, E.G.S. An Emergent Scaffolding Model Of Tertiary M-Learning: A Case Study Of Science Teacher Education In: 2nd International Mobile Learning and Edutainment Conference, Kuala Lumpur (2008) • Ferry, B.: Using mobile phones to enhance teacher learning in environmental education. In: Herrington, J., Herrington, A., Mantei, J., Olney, I., B. Ferry (eds.)pp. 45-55. University of Wollongong, Wollongong (2009) • Motiwalla, L. F.: Mobile Learning: A Framework and Evaluation. Computers and Education 49, 581--596 (2005) • Prensky, M.: Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 1. On The Horizon 9(5), 1 - 6 (2001) • Roblyer, M.: Integrating educational technology into teaching. Technology in music and art instruction. Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey (2006) • Zoraini Wati, A.: E-Learning in Malaysia: Moving Forward in Open Distance Learning. In: International Journal on E-Learning. 8(4), 527--537 (2009)