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Research Based Practices for Field Services. Minnesota State University December 5, 2001. Introduction. For Minnesota’s correctional services to achieve consistent, result-based outcomes across the state, benchmarks need to be set and achieved for field service practices

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research based practices for field services

Research Based Practices for Field Services

Minnesota State University

December 5, 2001

introduction
Introduction
  • For Minnesota’s correctional services to achieve consistent, result-based outcomes across the state, benchmarks need to be set and achieved for field service practices
  • To begin setting benchmarks, eight “Best Practices” have been developed
eight best practices
Eight Best Practices

1. Automated and Validated Risk Tool

2. Cognitive/Behavioral Programming

3. Case Plans

4. Restorative Justice

5. Primary Services

6. Supervision Workload Standards

7. Transition/Aftercare Services

8. Outcome Measures

automated validated risk tools1
Automated & Validated Risk Tools
  • Description:
    • The newest generation of risk/need tool is validated based on actuarial methods
    • Identifies key factors that predict recidivism
    • Lends itself to supervision levels and intervention strategies
  • Recommended Practice:
    • Every felon, personal gross misdemeanant and misdemeanant should have a risk tool applied. This tool should be consistent state-wide and offenders should be re-assessed every six-months. Other risk and need tools should be used as deemed appropriate.
automated validated risk tools2
Automated & Validated Risk Tools
  • You know it when you see….
    • The use of a common risk/need tool(s) that identifies dynamic criminogenic needs
    • Specialized tools for unique populations such as female, domestic violence, and sex offenders
    • Tools are culturally specific
    • The tool is used to determine supervision level and techniques
yls cmi sub scales
YLS/CMI Sub-Scales
  • Prior and Current Offenses and Dispositions
  • Family/Parenting
  • Education/Employment
  • Peer Relations
  • Substance Abuse
  • Leisure/Recreation
  • Personal/Behavior
  • Attitudes/Orientation
lsi r sub scales
LSI-R Sub-Scales
  • Criminal History
  • Education/Employment
  • Financial
  • Family/Marital
  • Accommodations
  • Leisure/Recreation
  • Companions
lsi r sub scales1
LSI-R Sub-Scales
  • Alcohol/Drug Problems
  • Emotional/Personal
  • Attitudes/Orientation
cognitive behavioral programming1
Cognitive/Behavioral Programming
  • Description:
    • Offenders often possess cognitive patterns that predispose them to committing crime (i.e., rigid thinking, poor problem solving skills, lack of empathy, etc.)
    • Cognitive/behavioral programming provides cognitive restructuring, thinking skills, and life skills
    • It helps offender re-examine values, understand consequences to holding certain beliefs, and give him/her a skill set to handle conflict and attain personal goals
  • Recommended Practice:
    • All appropriate adult and juvenile high-risk offenders will be referred to a cognitive/behavioral class
cognitive behavioral programming2
Cognitive/Behavioral Programming
  • You know it when you see…
    • The offering of three forms of programming (cog restructuring, cog skill building, and life skills)
    • Groups that are more intense and last longer for higher risk offenders
    • Responsivity/matching
    • Forethought to gender and cultural specific needs
    • Quality control mechanisms put in place including, but not limited to, peer review, taped sessions, use of an outside consultant, support groups, etc.
case plans1
Case Plans
  • Description:
    • Case plans ensure that case managers channel a sundry of information and diverse mission objections into a purposeful interaction
    • Case plans target the purpose of supervision and hold the offender and staff accountable
    • Case plans should be written, time and goal-driven, realistic and dynamic in nature
  • Recommended Practice:
    • Each high-risk offender will have a completed case plan, incorporating the core supervision objectives and conducted through motivational interviewing techniques
case plans2
Case Plans
  • You will know it when you see…
    • Structured plans developed for every higher risk offender
    • Plans that take into account both risk reduction and restoration objectives
    • Plans that are clear, written, concise, realistic, measurable, and specific
    • An emphasis on building developmental assets and strength-based approaches
    • Plans that allow for parent, victim, and community involvement and signature when appropriate
    • The use of motivational interviewing techniques in the development of the plan
slide19

INCREASING MOTIVATION TO CHANGE:

PERMANENT EXIT

(EVENTUALLY)

Maintenance

(Skills to maintain

support

with relapse)

Action

(Doing something

i.e. treatment)

Pre-Contemplation

Clueless)

Determination

ENTER

HERE

Status

Quo

Change

Contemplation

(“yes but...”)

TEMPORARY

EXIT

BY: Prochaska & Diclemente

the risk principle
The Risk Principle
  • Duration, level and intensity of service should be dependent on the level of risk posed by the client
  • The positive effects of treatment are greater among high risk offenders than lower risk offenders
  • In fact, recidivism rates increase among low risk offenders with increased services
the need principle
The Need principle
  • Focus the target of intervention on “criminogenic needs”or those factors that predict future criminal conduct
the reponsivity principle
The Reponsivity Principle
  • General: Behavioral, Cognitive Behavioral, structured social learning
  • Specific Considerations:
    • Level of Psychological Development

(cognitive/interpersonal)

    • Anxiety, Psychopathy & Motivation
    • Gender, Age, Ethnicity/Race
setting up a case plan
Setting Up a Case Plan

The Big Four

  • Anti-Social Behaviors (History)
  • Anti-Social Beliefs
  • Anti-Social Peers
  • Anti-Social Personality Patterns
slide24
SAQI
  • S - Strongly Related to Criminal Behavior
  • A - Alterable
  • Q - Quick (How quickly can the issue be addressed?)
  • I - Inter-Related (Will fixing one problem fix others?)
restorative justice1
Restorative Justice
  • Description
    • Restorative justice asks:
      • What was the harm?
      • What is needed to repair the harm?
      • Who is responsible for the repair?
    • Restorative justice focuses on three stakeholders (community, victim, and offender)
    • Offenders are held accountable by understanding the harm and “making things right” to the degree possible
  • Recommended Practice
    • Restorative justice techniques are available to all appropriate cases
restorative justice2
Restorative Justice
  • You know it when you see…
    • An emphasis on repairing harm
    • A balanced approach to accountability (victims), competency development (offenders) and public safety (community)
    • Participation by all stakeholders
    • Victim-offender face-to-face dialogue
    • Victim impact and empathy classes
    • Community courts
    • Crime repay crews
primary services1
Primary Services
  • Description:
    • Certain correctional services are considered the coreof an efficient and effective justice system
    • These primary services should be available no matter the location of the jurisdiction, the relative availability of regional funding or the type of correctional delivery system
  • Recommended Practice:
    • Each jurisdiction should have available those services listed as primary and core in the 1994 Probation Standards Task Force Report
primary services2
Primary Services
  • You know it when you see…. (examples)
    • Pre-sentence and pre-adjudication investigations
    • Specialized assessment services
    • Chemical dependency and urinalysis services
    • Sex offender services
    • Work crews
    • Intensive supervision
    • Domestic abuse investigations and services
    • Volunteers
    • Mental health programming
supervision workload standards1
Supervision Workload Standards
  • Description:
    • Current caseload and workload sizes vary across the state
    • Most jurisdictions measure workload differently, thereby making comparisons difficult to determine
    • Workload standards provide better opportunity to measure outcomes based on changing workload
supervision workload standards2
Supervision Workload Standards
  • Recommended Practice:
    • Each jurisdiction should report workload size using similar reporting mechanisms. Until a specific workload method is developed, the following should be applied as maximum caseloads per agent:

IntensiveSpecialHighMed. LowAdmin.

Adults 15 40 60 100 300 1000

Juveniles 10 NA 25 35 100 NA

supervision workload standards3
Supervision Workload Standards
  • You know it when you see…
    • Caseloads and workloads at a level whereby probation staff can apply research-proven practices that meet public safety and other mission objectives
    • Intensive agents partnering with law enforcement officers and conducting ride-alongs
    • Probation staff participating in the community policing meetings with the public, block clubs, etc.
    • Juvenile probation staff located in the schools working with school personnel to apply offender interventions, academic improvement activities, and prevention
transition aftercare services1
Transition/Aftercare Services
  • Description
    • Transition/aftercare services are key methods to ensure successful integration back into the community and serve as a way of preserving the financial investment already made in the offender
    • Effective transitional/aftercare services involve:
      • case management
      • the start of release planning at the point of entry into residential programming
      • assessment services
      • collaboration with multiple agencies
      • mentoring
      • highly structured environments
      • restorative programming
transition aftercare services2
Transition/Aftercare Services
  • Recommended Practices:
    • Transitional planning starts at the time of intake. A written plan that incorporates effective practices is developed prior to release. Case management services follow for a minimum of 90 days
transition aftercare services3
Transition/Aftercare Services
  • You know it when you see…
    • The intentional creation of seamless services from residential to field supervision
    • Case managers planning for transition from the point of initial placement
    • Comprehensive assessment services
    • Linkages with mentors and community support
    • Collaboration with multiple community-based agencies
outcome measures1
Outcome Measures
  • Description:
    • Todetermine if existing practice is producing intended results, the agency mission must be clear and measurements developed
    • Data is needed for policymakers and funders to know how to effectively contribute toward intended results
    • Each jurisdiction needs to have a consistent and core set of measured outcomes in order for funding to be successfully applied
    • The 1998 Outcome Measurement Task Force identified a set of core objectives and measurements to be collected in each correctional jurisdiction
outcome measures2
Outcome Measures
  • Minimum Standards:
    • Each correctional jurisdiction should report outcome data as identified by the 1998 Outcome Measurement Task Force
outcome measures3
Outcome Measures
  • You will know it when you see…
    • Measurable results that tie directly to the agency’s goals
    • Highly visible and accountable measures reported
    • An information system that includes data fields on all three stakeholders (offender, victim, community)
    • The use of surveys to determine how external stakeholders view services
    • Funding and policy development tied to results
    • Consistent reporting on core outcomes for all 87 counties