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ISEN 315 Spring 2011 Dr. Gary Gaukler. Introduction to Aggregate Planning. Goal: To plan gross work force levels and set firm-wide production plans, based on predicted demand for aggregate units. Hierarchy of Planning . Forecast of aggregate demand over time horizon

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Isen 315 spring 2011 dr gary gaukler

ISEN 315Spring 2011Dr. Gary Gaukler


Introduction to aggregate planning
Introduction to Aggregate Planning

  • Goal: To plan gross work force levels and set firm-wide production plans, based on predicted demand for aggregate units.


Hierarchy of planning
Hierarchy of Planning

  • Forecast of aggregate demand over time horizon

  • Aggregate Production Plan: determine aggregate production and workforce levels over time horizon

  • Master Production Schedule: Disaggregate the aggregate plan and determine per-item production levels

  • Materials Requirements Planning: Detailed schedule for production/replenishment activities


Prototype aggregate planning example
Prototype Aggregate Planning Example

The washing machine plant is interested in determining work force and production levels for the next 8 months.

Forecasted aggregate demands for Jan-Aug. are: 420, 280, 460, 190, 310, 145, 110, 125.

Starting inventory at the end of December is 200 and the firm would like to have 100 units on hand at the end of August.

Find monthly production levels.


Step 1 determine net demand
Step 1: Determine “net” demand.

Month Net Predicted Cum. Net

Demand Demand

1(Jan) 220 220

2(Feb) 280 500

3(Mar) 460 960

4(Apr) 190 1150

5(May) 310 1460

6(June) 145 1605

7(July) 110 1715

8(Aug) 225 1940


Constant work force plan
Constant Work Force Plan

Suppose that we are interested in determining a production plan that doesn’t change the size of the workforce over the planning horizon. How would we do that?



How can we have a constant work force plan with no stockouts
How can we have a constant work force plan with no stockouts?

Using the graph, find a straight line that lies completely above the cumulative net demand curve:


From the previous graph, we see that stockouts?the cum. net demand curve is crossed at period 3, so that monthly production is 960/3 = 320. Ending inventory each month is found from:

Month Cum. Net. Dem. Cum. Prod. Invent.

1(Jan) 220 320 100

2(Feb) 500 640 140

3(Mar) 960 960 0

4(Apr.) 1150 1280 130

5(May) 1460 1600 140

6(June) 1605 1920 315

7(July) 1715 2240 525

8(Aug) 1940 2560 620


But may not be realistic for several reasons
But stockouts? - may not be realistic for several reasons:

  • It may not be possible to achieve the production level of 320 unit/mo with an integer number of workers

  • Since all months do not have the same number of workdays, a constant production level may not translate to the same number of workers each month.


To overcome these shortcomings
To overcome these shortcomings: stockouts?

  • Assume number of workdays per month is given

  • K factor computed where K = # of aggregate units produced by one worker in one day

  • Suppose that we are told that over a period of 40 days, the plant had 38 workers who produced 520 units. It follows that:

  • K= 520/(38*40) = .3421

    = average number of units produced by one worker in one day.


Computing constant work force
Computing Constant Work Force stockouts?

Assume we are given the following # working days per month: 22, 16, 23, 20, 21, 17, 18, 10. March is still critical month.

Cum. net demand thru March = 960.

Cum # working days = 22+16+23 = 61.

Find 960/61 = 15.7377 units/day implies 15.7377/.3421 = 46 workers required.


Constant work force production plan
Constant Work Force Production Plan stockouts?

Mo # wk days Prod. Cum CumNt End Inv

Level Prod Dem

Jan 22 346 346 220 126

Feb 16 252 598 500 98

Mar 23 362 960 960 0

Apr 20 315 1275 1150 125

May 21 330 1605 1460 145

Jun 22 346 1951 1605 346

Jul 21 330 2281 1715 566

Aug 22 346 2627 1940 687


Addition of costs
Addition of Costs stockouts?

  • Holding Cost (per unit per month): $8.50

  • Hiring Cost per worker: $800

  • Firing Cost per worker: $1,250

  • Payroll Cost: $75/worker/day

  • Shortage Cost: $50 unit short/month


Cost evaluation of constant work force plan
Cost Evaluation of Constant Work Force Plan stockouts?

  • Assume that the work force at end of Dec was 40.

  • Cost to hire 6 workers: 6*800 = $4800

  • Inventory Cost: accumulate ending inventory: (126+98+0+. . .+687) = 2093. Add in 100 units netted out in Aug = 2193.

  • Hence Inv. Cost = 2193*8.5=$18,640.50

  • Payroll cost: ($75/worker/day) (46 workers) (167days) = $576,150

  • Cost of plan: $576,150 + $18,640.50 + $4800 = $599,590.50



Zero inventory plan chase strategy
Zero Inventory Plan (Chase Strategy) stockouts?

  • Change the workforce each month in order to reduce ending inventory to nearly zero by matching the workforce with monthly demand as closely as possible.

  • This is accomplished by computing the # units produced by one worker each month (by multiplying K by #days per mo.) and then taking net demand each month and dividing by this quantity.

  • The resulting ratio is rounded up and possibly adjusted downward.


Chase vs constant
Chase vs. Constant stockouts?


Linear programming
Linear Programming stockouts?

  • Class of optimization problems

  • Linear objective function

  • Linear constraints

  • Real variables

  • Efficiently solved


Aggregate planning lp
Aggregate Planning LP stockouts?

  • Parameters:

    • cH, cF

    • cI

    • cR

    • cO, cU, cS


Aggregate planning lp1
Aggregate Planning LP stockouts?

  • Parameters:

    • nt

    • K

    • I0 ,W0

    • Dt


Aggregate planning lp2
Aggregate Planning LP stockouts?

  • Decision variables:

    • Wt

    • Pt

    • It

    • Ht, Ft


Aggregate planning lp3
Aggregate Planning LP stockouts?

  • Decision variables:

    • Ot

    • Ut

    • St



Aggregate planning lp5
Aggregate Planning LP stockouts?

  • Constraints:


Aggregate planning lp6
Aggregate Planning LP stockouts?

  • Constraints:


Aggregate planning lp7
Aggregate Planning LP stockouts?

  • Objective function:


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