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The Capable County

The Capable County

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The Capable County

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  1. The Capable County 2 April 2013Bell Ringer We are paper boxing today. Get out a sheet of paper and put your first name, last name, the period you have civics, and today’s date in the upper right-hand corner. Title your paper Each box will have its own title. The title you will use is the title of each slide.

  2. Today’s Rules for Notes If there is something underlined on the screen, you should write it down. If I say something and then repeat it two more times, you should write it down.

  3. 1st box What is a county? You already know that the United States is divided into smaller units of government called states. What are states divided into? Counties! A county is the next smallest unit of government below a state. Counties make it easier to provide services directly to people. The county seatis the town or city in each county that serves as the home for the county government.

  4. 1st box What is a county? Every state has counties (sort of). Louisiana’s counties are called parishes. Alaska’s counties are called boroughs. What’s the difference between a county and a borough and a parish? NOTHING! Just the names are different. You already know that the United States is divided into smaller units of government called states. What are states divided into? Counties! A county is the next smallest unit of government below a state. Counties make it easier to provide services directly to people. The county seat is the town or city in each county that serves as the home for the county government.

  5. 2ndbox Counties provide services to you Counties in the state of Illinois 102 Does Florida have more or fewer counties? You’ve probably benefited from county services without even realizing it. Have you ever driven on a road? Needed a copy of your birth certificate? Called 911? Although every county is different, maintaining roads, keeping vital records, and providing emergency services are the kinds of services that counties might provide.

  6. 2ndbox Counties provide services to you But that’s not all. Here is a list of more services that counties might provide for their residents:  Run elections  Operate courts and jails  Run hospitals  Offer mental health services  Provide clean water  Keep property records  Plan how land will be developed  Give relief to the poor  Run disease prevention programs  Maintain parks Pick three that you think are Important and write them down.

  7. 3rd and 4th boxes Paying for county services It takes money to provide all these services. Counties have three main sources of money to pay for it all: the federal government, the state, and the countyitself. The smallest share of a county’s money comes from the federalgovernment. A bigger share—usually almost one-thirdof a county’s money—comes from the state.

  8. 3rd and 4th boxes Paying for county services The biggestsource of money for a county is the countyitself. Most of the money comes from property taxesthat are paid by people or businesses on land and buildings they own inside the county. Some counties have a sales tax on items sold inside the county. Counties raise money by charging fees for services the county provides. (For example, a county may provide garbage collection, but people who participate have to pay for that service.)

  9. 3rd and 4th boxes Paying for county services Sometimes the federal or state government make counties provide certain services but don’t give counties any money to pay for those services. These demands are called unfunded mandates because they are mandated (ordered) but not funded (not paid for). For example, counties are responsible for running elections, but they do not receive any money to pay for the elections. Counties must provide these services even if it means raising more money on their own.

  10. 5th box County Power: Dillon’s Rule Counties don’t have magic powers. Instead, they get their power from one of two places. In some states, the state itself gives counties the power to carry out duties and provide services. Those states follow Dillon’s Rule, which says that a county must get authority from the state legislature before it can provide services. These states see the county government as just another part of the state. tl;drDillon’s Rule = county can’t do anything unless the state says yes

  11. 6th box County Power: Home Rule In other states, counties are considered to have natural powers of their own. Maybe this is a little like magic, but it’s actually called Home Rule. Under Home Rule, counties have the power to make decisions for themselves about what services to provide. In these states, counties have some independence from the state. But don’t get the wrong idea—even in these states, state laws always trump county laws. tl;drHome Rule = county can do anything unless the state says no

  12. 7th box Who’s In Charge? Three ways a county’s government might be organized: 1. Commission Only County citizens elect several people to sit on a commission (also called a board). This board has some “legislative” power because it passes county laws (which are called ordinances) and figures out the county’s budget. It has some “executive” power because it decides what the county’s policies will be and carries out the laws it passes. Commissions also share some of their power with elected officials who oversee specific departments, such as the sheriff, clerk, or county judge.

  13. 7th box Who’s In Charge? Three ways a county’s government might be organized: Commission/Administrator/Manager Under this system, the commission gives some of its “executive” power to an administrator. The commission chooses the administrator and has the power to fire that person. The administrator carries out the board’s decisions.

  14. 7th box Who’s In Charge? Three ways a county’s government might be organized: Commission + Executive Under this system, an elected person separate from the commission has the county’s “executive” power. This executive can sometimes veto decisions the board makes. This is more like a real legislative and executive branch, because the commission and the executive can check each other’s power.

  15. 8th box Counties go way back Well before the Unites States was formed, England was divided into units called “shires.” English shires served the local community and represented the national government. The thirteen English colonies in America borrowed the shire system and adapted it to their needs. When the U.S. government was formed, the writers of the Constitution didn’t say how local government should be run. As a result, county governments continued and developed into the county system we have today. Vermont’s county seats are still called shire towns!

  16. Yes/No ActivityCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Is a county smaller than a state? YES!

  17. Yes/No ActivityCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Are counties called “counties” in every state? NO!

  18. Yes/No ActivityCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Do counties get any of their money from the state? YES!

  19. Yes/No ActivityCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Do counties get most of their money from the state? NO!

  20. Yes/No ActivityCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Are fees the biggest source of income for a county? NO!

  21. Yes/No ActivityCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Does the federal government sometimes require that counties provide a service? YES!

  22. Yes/No ActivityCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Does the federal government sometimes not pay for the services it requires? YES!

  23. Yes/No ActivityCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Does Dillon’s Rule say that a county has its own natural power? NO!

  24. Yes/No ActivityCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Do most county governments include a commission? YES!

  25. Yes/No ActivityCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Do all county governments include a county administrator? NO!

  26. Yes/No ActivityCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Do county governments have only “executive branch” powers? NO!

  27. Yes/No ActivityCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Did our county system come from Germany? NO!

  28. Midwest East West South There once was a rule that counties had to be small enough that from any part of the county you could reach the county seat in one day’s ride on horseback. In which part of the United States did this rule apply?

  29. Midwest East West South Originally county lines were drawn to include all the land that a person owned. This means that the lines were very squiggly! In which part of the United States do we see small, squiggly counties?

  30. Midwest East West South As Americans moved toward the West, counties were divided up into even plots of land in the shape of squares or rectangles because it was easy for surveyors and no one owned land there already. In which part of the United States did this rule apply?

  31. Midwest East West South With the spread of the railroad, new counties being formed could be extremely large. In which part of the United States do we see the effect of the railroad?

  32. Midwest East West South What region do you live in?

  33. Can you find the county you live in?

  34. Can you guess what that red mark means?

  35. County Fun FactsCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 How many counties are there in the United States? about 3,000 about 15,000

  36. County Fun FactsCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Which state has the most counties? Texas California

  37. County Fun FactsCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 Which state has the fewest counties? Rhode Island Delaware

  38. County Fun FactsCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 In 2010, the county with the fewest people had… 82 people 45 people

  39. County Fun FactsCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 In 2010, the county with the fewest people had 82 people. This county is located in Texas Alaska

  40. County Fun FactsCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 In 2010, the county with the most people had… nearly 10 million over 20 million

  41. County Fun FactsCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 In 2010, the county with the most people had nearly 10 million. This county is located in New York California

  42. County Fun FactsCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 The oldest county was organized in the year... 1634 1776

  43. County Fun FactsCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 The youngest county was organized in the year... 1988 2001

  44. County Fun FactsCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 The smallest county measures... < 2 sq. mi. < 26 sq. mi.

  45. County Fun FactsCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 The largest county measures... >14,000 sq. mi. > 88,000 sq. mi.

  46. County Fun FactsCall out the right answers on the count of three. 1 2 3 The largest county is located in... Texas Alaska

  47. You may use the rest of class today to work on your home prep.It is on the back table.You may work in pairs, but desks will be back in their rows before I dismiss you.