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21 - Financial Reporting Of Leases. CORPORATE FINANCIAL REPORTING. S IMPLE L EASE E XAMPLE.

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Dilutive Securities and EPS

21 - Financial Reporting Of Leases

CORPORATE FINANCIAL

REPORTING

s imple l ease e xample
SIMPLE LEASE EXAMPLE

Equipment costs $30,000 new, LESSEE leases the equipment for 3 years, payments at the beginning of each year. Lessee expects a residual value of $10,000 at the end of the 3 years and wants to earn 10%/year on the unpaid balance. The equipment has a 7 year life.

1/2/12 1/2/13 1/2/14 12/31/14

| | | |

$30,000 $10,000

HOW MUCH ARE THE ANNUAL LEASE PAYMENTS?

s imple l ease e xample1
SIMPLE LEASE EXAMPLE

Suppose you “believed” the equipment was not your asset so you did not record the asset or liability – in financial reporting terminology you would be saying the lease was an “operating lease.”

s imple l ease e xample if it is an operating lease
SIMPLE LEASE EXAMPLEif it is an Operating Lease

1/2/12 1/2/131/2/14 12/31/14 | | | |

$8,220 $8,220 $8,220

How should you record the lease payments?

s imple l ease e xample if it is a capital lease
SIMPLE LEASE EXAMPLEif it is a capital Lease

Now, suppose you believed the equipment was your asset – in reporting terminology you would be saying the lease were a “capital (or finance/financing) lease.”

s imple l ease e xample if it is a capital lease1
SIMPLE LEASE EXAMPLEif it is a capital Lease

1/2/12 1/2/131/2/1412/31/14 | | | |

$ 30,000 $10,000

At 1/2/12: (Assume for now, the residual value was not guaranteed by the lessee.)

s imple l ease e xample if it is a capital lease2
SIMPLE LEASE EXAMPLEif it is a capital Lease

Lessee is making 3 payments of $8,220 - a total of $24,660; but the liability is recorded at $22,486

s imple l ease e xample if it is a capital lease3
SIMPLE LEASE EXAMPLEif it is a capital Lease

1/2/12 1/2/131/2/14 12/31/14 | | | |

$ 30,000 10,000

At 1/2/12- 1/2/14 :

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Can the lessee cancel the lease?

yesno

Does title transfer at the lease end?yes BOO !

no CAPITAL

Is there a bargain purchase option? yes LEASE no

Is the lease for ≥ ¾ of the asset’s useful life? yes

no

Is the PVMLP ≥90% assets fair value? yes

no

HURRAY !

OPERATING

LEASE

LEASES – WHICH IS IT?(OR HOW TO AVOID CAPITAL LEASES)

l eases i nternational v iew
LEASESINTERNATIONAL VIEW

IAS 17 is similar to FAS 13, but is more “principles” based – it gives situations that individually or in combination would lead you to classify a lease as a finance lease.

The idea is that a finance lease transfers substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee.

l eases a dditional c onsiderations
LEASESAdditional Considerations

Residual value - unguaranteed or guaranteed

Executory costs treatment

Lessee’s interest rate -incremental borrowing rate unless…

l eases a dditional c onsiderations1
LEASESAdditional Considerations

Lessor Accounting

Lessor’s Initial Direct Costs (IDC): 1-incremental direct costs (paid to 3rd parties) & 2-internal direct costs(internal indirect costs – are not IDC and are expensed immediately)

l eases a dditional c onsiderations2
LEASESAdditional Considerations

Real Estate

Sale and Leaseback

s ale a nd l easeback appendix 21 a
SALE AND LEASEBACK(Appendix 21 A)

Fairly Common Transactions

(or pair of transactions)

s ale a nd l easeback
SALE AND LEASEBACK

Seller / lessee’s accountant looks at it as two (related) transactions.

Transaction 1 – the sale – like the sale of PPE in ACCT 3220, but with a difference: gains/losses are not recorded immediately.*

Transaction 2 – the leaseback – treated as either an operating or capital lease.

* There are two exceptions to this general rule.

l eases w hat y ou s hould d o w hen r eading f inancial s tatements
LEASES – WHAT YOU SHOULD DO WHEN READING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:

IAS and American standards differ in detail, but both give you a method to “undo” management maneuvers to avoid capital leases.

t he l ease l essor a ccounting
THE LEASE:LESSOR ACCOUNTING

LESSEE:LESSOR:

Operating lease Operating lease

Sales type lease

Capital lease or

Direct financing lease

t he l ease l essor a ccounting1
THE LEASE:LESSOR ACCOUNTING

In general, if it is a capital lease for the lessee, then the lessor considers the asset to be sold, but not always.

To be considered “sold” the lessor has two additional criteria that must be met:

Lessor is “certain” of payment and

Lessor has no material uncertain costs.