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Climate Change Effects on Tourism’s Major Asset : The Environment. ( b i o d i v e r s i t y). A Presentation for the Fourth Global Forum on Oceans, Coasts & Islands April 7 – 11, 2008, Hanoi, Vietnam. Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Climate Change.
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Climate ChangeEffects on Tourism’s Major Asset : The Environment ( b i o d i v e r s i t y) A Presentation for the Fourth Global Forum on Oceans, Coasts & Islands April 7 – 11, 2008, Hanoi, Vietnam Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Global Impacts of Climate Change Sea level rises threaten the viability of many coastal zones and small islands. Temperature rises are predicted to change precipitation patterns - both seasonal and absolute - which seem likely to exacerbate water supply problems. A greater risk of both flooding and drought conditions in many parts of the world. Climate change also seems likely to increase the magnitude, frequency and risk of extreme climatic events, such as storms and sea surges.
(Short for biological diversity) The variability among living organisms from all sources includingterrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part (CBD) biodiversity
Biodiversity is the totality of all life forms on earth & its interactions Photos by : HARIBON Foundation
LEVELS OF BIODIVERSITY • Genetic diversity • Species diversity • Ecosystems diversity Photos by : HARIBON Foundation
Genetic Diversity - variability within genes Species Diversity - total number of species occurring in a particular area Ecosystems Diversity - variety of ecosystems within a geographical boundary
Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE on Biodiversity and Ecotourism Endemic species being highly sensitive to change are therefore more vulnerable Animal populations may be affected by environmental stress or indirectly through changes in vegetation Coastal areas are especially vulnerable to natural disturbances; habitat fragmentation and biological invasions Rising sea levels will have impacts on coastal ecosystems, land loss and salinity Corals show a high sensitivity to minor increases in sea temperature
CLIMATE CHANGE and ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY
Highlights from 2003 WTO Conference on Tourism & Climate Change: • Beach Tourism will suffer damage: • beach erosion; • greater damage from sea surges & storms; • increased sea levels; • decrease in water supply
Climate change and biodiversity RICHEST in the WORLD with 430 species… ( the Great Barrier Reef has only 350 species)
Climate change and biodiversity Coral Bleaching Photo by : WWF
Photo by : National Geographic Photo by : WWF
Climate change and biodiversity 211 lakes, 18 major rivers, 22 marshes, swamps and reservoirs
Photo : Cagayan de Oro whitewater adventure… (De Oro Mountain Explorers Club)
Climate change and biodiversity • Long/dry summers & drought… • limit access to natural areas; • frequent forest fire occurrence may restrict experiences such as hiking/trekking
Photo : Noslek Arbor Canopy Walk, Magbais, Claveria, Misamis Oriental, Philippines De Oro Mountain Explorers Club (DOME)
CLIMATE CHANGE and SPECIES DIVERSITY
Climate Change and Plant Migration As a general rule, plant species will move northwards and upwards in altitude as their current location warms and they seek cooler conditions more akin to their original location
Climate change is already having an impact on all kinds of wildlife. Species worldwide are shifting their ranges, migrating sooner, and bearing young earlier than in the past.
Photo: Donsol, Sorsogon WWF-Philippines Whale sharks have a high degree of association with spawning of coral, fish and crab and other important ecological processes
Climate change and biodiversity • Migratory birds…. • changes in migration & feeding patterns; • viewing times impacted
How can Tourism Contribute to Biodiversity Conservation? • offering less destructive livelihood alternatives to local communities and landowners in buffer zones and conservation corridors; • providing an incentive for public and private landowners in critical ecosystems to permanently conserve biodiversity-rich properties, by offering revenue-producing, low-impact economic use; • providing protected-area managers with additional financial resources from visitation and donations; and; • raising visitor awareness, promoting community involvement and interest in conservation issues, and generating political support for conservation through environmental education during travel. - Tourism and Biodiversity Report UNEP, 2003
How can Biodiversity Conservation Promote Adaptation to Climate Change? • maintaining and restoring native ecosystems; • Protecting and enhancing ecosystem services; • Managing habitats for endangered species; • Creating refuges and buffer zones; and • Establishing networks of terrestrial, freshwater and marine protected areas that take into account projected changes in climate. • - Convention on Biological Diversity
… biodiversity is a vital asset to the tourism industry • tourism directly help finance the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; • tourism is one of the most effective public awareness raising tools for environmental protection.
"The powerful forces that shape the essence of tourism, including the human urge to see and experience the natural world, must continue to be harnessed to support the achievement of the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity". • Ahmed Djoghlaf • Executive Secretary • Convention on Biological Diversity (2007)