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Radial flow and non-equilibrium in heavy-ion collisions (from Tsallis-based Blast-Wave). Zebo Tang ( 唐泽波 ) University of Science and Technology of China. Li Yi , Ming Shao, Zhangbu Xu. Introduction & Motivation Why and how to implement Tsallis statistics in Blast-Wave framework Results

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radial flow and non equilibrium in heavy ion collisions from tsallis based blast wave

Radial flow and non-equilibrium in heavy-ion collisions (from Tsallis-based Blast-Wave)

Zebo Tang (唐泽波)

University of Science and Technology of China

Li Yi, Ming Shao, Zhangbu Xu

  • Introduction & Motivation
  • Why and how to implement Tsallis statistics in Blast-Wave framework
  • Results
    • strange hadrons vs. light hadrons
    • J/y radial flow
  • Conclusion

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

thermalization and radial flow
Thermalization and Radial flow

From Blast-Wave

Matter flows – all particles have the

same collective velocity:

Multi-strange decouple earlier than light hadrons

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

hydrodynamics evolution

Decouple with

pion and proton

Decouple at

chemical freeze-out

Hydrodynamics evolution

Light hadrons

Multi-strange W

Ulrich Heinz, arXiv:0901.4355

Multi-strange particle spectra can be well described by the same hydrodynamics at the same freeze-out as light hadrons

in contrast to the Blast-wave results

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

blast wave model

boosted

E.Schnedermann, J.Sollfrank, and U.Heinz, Phys. Rev. C48, 2462(1993)

random

Extract thermal temperature Tfo and velocity parameter T

Blast-Wave Model

Source is assumed to be:

  • Local thermal equilibrated  Boltzmann distribution
  • Boosted radically
  • Temperature and T are global quantities

Nu Xu

BGBW: Boltzmann-Gibbs Blast-Wave

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

limitation of the blast wave
Limitation of the Blast-wave
  • Strong assumption on local thermal equilibrium
  • Arbitrary choice of pT range of the spectra
  • Flow velocity <bT>=0.2 in p+p
  • Lack of non-extensive quantities to describe the evolution from p+p to central A+A collisions
    • mT spectra in p+p collisions

Levy function or mT power-law

    • mT spectra in A+A collisions

Boltzmann or mT exponential

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

non extensive tsallis statistics

Particle pT spectra:

Exponential  Power law

Non-extensive Tsallis statistics

C. Tsallis, H. Stat. Phys. 52, 479 (1988)

http://www.cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/notabene/tsallis.html

http://tsallis.cat.cbpf.br/biblio.htm

Wilk and Wlodarzcyk, EPJ40, 299 (2009)

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

temperature fluctuation
Temperature fluctuation

Reverse legend

Wilk and Wlodarzcyk, EPJ40, 299 (2009)

Wilk and Wlodarzcyk, PRL84, 2770 (2000)

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

tsallis statistics in blast wave model
Tsallis statistics in Blast-wave model

BGBW:

With Tsallis distribution:

The Blast-wave equation is:

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

fit results in au au collisions
Fit results in Au+Au collisions

ZBT,Yichun Xu, Lijuan Ruan, Gene van Buren, Fuqiang Wang and Zhangbu Xu, Phys. Rev. C 79, 051901 (R) (2009)

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

fit strange hadrons only
Fit strange hadrons only

All available species

Strangeness, Au+Au 0-10%:

<b> = 0.464 +- 0.006

T = 0.150 +- 0.005

q = 1.000 +- 0.002

chi^2/nDof = 51/99

Tstrange>Tlight-hadrons

Strangness decouple from the system earlier

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

centrality dependence for t and b t
Centrality dependence for T and <bT>
  • Multi-strange hadrons decouple earlier
  • Hadron rescattering at hadronic phase doesn’t produce a collective radial flow, instead, it drives the system off equilibrium
  • Partons achieve thermal equilibrium in central collisions

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

how about heavy hadrons

How about heavy hadrons?

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

j y suppression at rhic and sps

Grandchamp, Rapp, Brown

PRL 92, 212301 (2004)

nucl-ex/0611020

Puzzle!

Regeneration?

Test with J/y flow.

J/y suppression at RHIC ≈

J/y suppression at SPS

(energy differs by ~10 times)

J/y suppression at RHIC and SPS
  • quarkonium – gloden probe of QGP
  • deconfinement (color screening)
  • thermometer

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

j y elliptic flow

PHENIX Beam Use Request

J/y Elliptic flow

J/y

Heavy Flavor decay electron

Alan Dion, QM2009

Too early to compare with models

Won’t have enough statistics before 2011

Ermias T. Atomssa, QM2009

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

how about radial flow
How about radial flow?

Sizeable radial flow for heavy flavor decay electrons

Yifei Zhang, QM2008, STAR, arXiv:nucl-ex/0805.0364 (submitted to PRL)

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

j y radial flow

<b> = 0.06 +- 0.03 T = 0.134 +- 0.006

q =1.0250 +- 0.0014 c2/nDof = 85.03 / 26

J/y radial flow

J/y radial flow consistent with 0

Inconsistent with regeneration

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥

summary
Summary
  • Identified particle spectra from SPS to RHIC has been analyzed with Tsallis statistics in Blast-wave description

(light hadrons, multi-strange hadrons, charmonium)

  • Partonic phase
    • Partons achieve thermal quilibrium in central heavy-ion collisions
    • J/y are not thermalized and disfavor regeneration
  • Multi-strange hadrons decouple earlier
  • Hadronic phase
    • Hadronic rescattering doesn’t produce collective radial flow
    • It drives the system off equilibrium
    • Radial flow reflects that when the multi-strange decouples

唐泽波 (USTC), 第十三届全国中高能核物理大会, 合肥