Latin America SS6H1 (B) Explain the impact of the Columbian Exchange on Latin America & Europe in terms of : the decline of the indigenous people, agricultural change, and the introduction of the horse.
In Other Words…. • Explain how the exchange of goods, animals, and diseases between Europe and Latin America caused the native population of Latin America to decrease, changed how and what they farmed & ate, and changed how they traveled from one place to another.
The Columbian Exchange • The Columbian Exchange is the term used to identify the exchange of goods, animals, people, and diseases between Europe and the Americas. • It is called the Columbian Exchange because it began after, and as a result of, Columbus ‘discovering’ the Americas
The ‘Old World’ usually means Europe, but can sometimes also include Africa, because these parts of the world were already known to Europe and its explorers ~ it was ‘old’ news • The ‘New World’ means the Americas(both North & South America), because these lands were ‘new’ to Europe and their explorers who ‘discovered’ these new lands
Europe, Africa, Western Asia(Everything in the Eastern Hemisphere except for Australia) The ‘Old World’
The Exchange of Plants • One important part of the Columbian Exchange was the exchange of food plants • Cocoa, corn, potatoes, peppers, & tomatoes grew in Central & South America & were shipped back to Europe • Coffee, peaches, sugar, & wheat grew in Europe and were shipped to the Americas
New Food = New Diet • Having these new crops meant that what people ate, both in Europe & in the Americas, changed drastically • Not only did this mean a larger variety of foods to choose from but also meant a more complete and nutritious diet insuring that people were more likely to get all of the vitamins, minerals etc. their bodies need to grow & be healthy
European Diseases • While many things Europeans brought with them to the Americas were useful to the natives, often helping to make their lives better & easier, Europeans also unknowingly brought something else that would devastate the native population throughout the Americas … Diseases
The Europeans brought with them many diseases that the native people had never seen or been exposed to before. • Their bodies did not have immunities (natural resistance) to these new diseases and their healers did not know how to treat them
Some of the diseases Europeans brought with them to the Americas were influenza(flu), measles, small pox, and typhoid fever.
Between 50% and 75% of the indigenous (native) population of some tribes in the Americas lost their lives to these new European diseases. • Far more indigenous people died from these diseases than in battle with European explorers/conquerors
New Animals From Europe • Europeans also introduced certain animals to the New World. • These included pigs, cows, goats, and bees
The Horse… • The horse was another animal Europeans introduced to the indigenous people of the New World • Horses were by far the most important animal the Europeans brought to the New World
Horses made it possible for the natives to travel faster and farther than ever before • They made trade and travel easier, which made it possible for the natives to spread their culture and knowledge farther, reaching other native tribes they had never come into contact with
This sharing of goods, culture, and information made life better for all people living in the Americas
Triangular Trade • One of the most important results of The Columbian Exchange(the exchange of goods, people, and diseases between the ‘Old World’ and the ‘New World’), was a trade pattern called the Triangular Trade
The Triangular trade was named after the shape that its trade routes, coming and going from Europe, Africa, and the Americas, made. North America Europe Africa South America
The trade routes of the Triangular Trade carried the goods and people that were also a part of the Columbian Exchange • But, the Columbian Exchange was the trading of goods, people, and diseases between Europe and the New World (it included any exchange of anything between the ‘Old World’ and the ‘New World’) • The Triangular Trade were the specific trade routes of specific goods between specific places
In the Triangular Trade: • Raw Materials(examples: cut trees and animal hides that have not been processed into finished goods that can be sold) are shipped from the Americas, where they are grown and harvested, to Europe where they will be processed and turned into finished goods, like rocking chairs and winter coats. North America Europe Africa South America
In the Triangular Trade: • Manufactured Goods(examples: Rocking Chairs and Winter Coats) are made in Europe using the raw materials shipped to them from the Americas. They are shipped from Europe to Africa, where they will either be sold or shipped to the Americas to be sold. North America Europe Africa South America
In the Triangular Trade: • Slaves shipped from Africa to the Americas where they were forced into slavery, working to grow and harvest the raw materials that were shipped to Europe North America Europe Africa South America
Summary Assessment Question: • Imagine that you are a native living in Central America when the Spanish conquistadors arrive on the coasts of your land. Describe the many new things they bring with them (food, animals, diseases). Explain how each of these groups of new things have changed your life. Do you feel that your life is better or worse after the Europeans arrived. Explain why you feel this way.
This is a short answer response. This means that your answer should be paragraph length, not one word answers. • Specifically you should have: • 1 introductory sentence • 3 sentences describing the new things brought by the Europeans (1 for food, 1 for animals, 1 for disease) • 3 sentences describing how each of these groups of new things have changed your life (1 for food, 1 for animals, 1 for disease) • 1 sentence telling whether your life is better or worse • 1 sentence, minimum, explaining why you feel this way • * Total of 9 complete, correct sentences, minimum