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D1.HFO.CL2.02 D2.TTA.CL2.13. OPERATE A COMPUTERISED RESERVATIONS SYSTEM. Subject elements. This unit comprises three Elements: Identify the features offered by a computerised reservations systems Operate the computerised reservation system Process reservations’ communications. Assessment.

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subject elements
Subject elements

This unit comprises three Elements:

  • Identify the features offered by a computerised reservations systems
  • Operate the computerised reservation system
  • Process reservations’ communications
assessment
Assessment

Assessment for this unit may include:

  • Oral questions
  • Written questions
  • Work projects
  • Workplace observation of practical skills
  • Practical exercises
  • Formal report from supervisor
slide4

Element 1:

Identify the features offered by a computerised reservations systems

identify the features offered by a computerised reservations systems
Identify the features offered by a computerised reservations systems

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Explain the benefits of and barriers to using a computerised reservations system
  • Identify the businesses that may use a computerised reservation system
  • Describe the scope of a computerised reservations system
  • Describe the functions that can be performed on a computerised reservations system
  • Interpret the screens and displays available within a computerised reservations system
definitions
Definitions

What is a CRS?

  • Computerised reservation system

What is a GDS?

  • Global distribution system
importance of a crs
Importance of a CRS
  • Computerised reservation systems have become an essential part of any hospitality and tourism organisation
  • It is a necessary tool to store and access a wide range of information, that can be easily accessed by a range of people in any location
hospitality crs
Hospitality CRS

Hospitality computerised reservation systems

  • A hotel reservation system, also known as a central reservation system (CRS) is a computerized system that stores and distributes information of a hotel, resort, or other lodging facilities
hospitality crs1
Hospitality CRS

Hospitality computerised reservation systems

  • What hospitality computerised reservation systems are used in the industry?
  • Was is their function?
hospitality crs2
Hospitality CRS

Hotel software system areas

  • Property management
  • Accounting
  • Internet/GDS reservations
  • Central reservations
  • Reception
hospitality crs3
Hospitality CRS

Hotel software system areas

  • Point of Sale (POS)
  • Spa, club and golf management
  • Guest management
  • Inventory management
  • Yield/revenue management
hospitality crs4
Hospitality CRS

Property Management Software (PMS)

  • One of the major types of hotel software used by the hotel industry is hotel property management software (PMS)
  • PMS is a comprehensive software package that manages all aspects of hotel operations, which has front desk, and back office modules that handle reservations, guest profile/folio, reporting, night auditing, and housekeeping, accounting, payroll and asset and inventory management
hospitality crs5
Hospitality CRS

Hotel reservation systems

For reservations, there are two types of hotel software:

  • A CRS (central reservation system)
  • An IBE (Internet booking engine) - an IBE allows guests to remotely make reservations accessing the hotel’s website
hospitality crs6
Hospitality CRS

Modules in a hospitality CRS

  • Reservations
  • Profiles
  • Groups and blocks
  • Rate and inventory control
  • Administration
  • Reporting
  • Global distribution interface
  • PMS interface
hospitality crs7
Hospitality CRS

Common CRS information

Information commonly stored in a CRS includes

  • Room types
  • Rate plans architecture
  • Room rates and conditions
  • Room inventories
  • Generic hotel information
  • Distribution content
  • Reservation information
  • Nearby IATA cities and airports
tourism crs
Tourism CRS
  • The Global Distribution System (GDS) is an e-commerce tool introduced by airlines to facilitate the booking of flights
  • By definition a GDS is a computerised reservation system (CRS) in that it enables, for example, travel agencies to place bookings with travel suppliers and their booking systems via a worldwide distribution network
tourism crs1
Tourism CRS

There are four major Global Distribution Systems:

  • Amadeus
  • Galileo
  • Sabre
  • Worldspan
tourism crs2
Tourism CRS

Tourism CRS uses

These systems enable travel agencies to:

  • Search lowest fares for nominated destinations
  • Automatically re-calculate fares for changed itineraries
  • Store client data and records
  • Access world-wide options
tourism crs3
Tourism CRS

Types of CRS bookings and reservations

GDS systems are capable of booking:

  • One way and roundtrip airline seats
  • Hotel rooms
  • Rental cars
  • Tours
  • Cruises
tourism crs4
Tourism CRS

Types of CRS bookings and reservations

GDS systems are capable of booking:

  • Bus and rail tickets
  • Insurance
  • Limousines
  • Event and theatre tickets
  • Dining reservations
information within a crs
Information within a CRS

Information contained within a CRS

  • Destination information
  • Availability and costs of any product/service
  • Detailed product and service information
  • Airfares and airline information
  • Special offers and packages
  • Transportation options
  • Payment options
  • Health and safety recommendations
benefits of a crs
Benefits of a CRS
  • Speedier processing of requests and bookings, ticketing and quotations
  • Central location of information
  • Integration with web-based/online booking systems
  • Allowing multiple uses and multiple sites
  • Preserving privacy and confidentiality through passwords, operator only designations and system administrator status
  • Allowing pre-set limits/allocations/changes
barriers of a crs
Barriers of a CRS
  • Cost of initial establishment
  • Training of staff
  • System breakdowns and malfunctions
  • Need for system back-ups, system maintenance and system updates
  • Discrepancies occurring between properties using different systems
  • Operational staff tend to focus on the screen instead of customer
businesses using a crs
Businesses using a CRS
  • Retail travel agencies
  • Hotels
  • Visitor information centres
  • Airlines
  • Coach companies
  • Car rental companies
  • Entertainment providers
businesses using a crs1
Businesses using a CRS
  • Tour operators and wholesalers
  • Event coordinators
  • Tour desk officers
  • Operations consultants
  • Owner operators of small tourism businesses
  • Reservations sales agents
scope of a crs
Scope of a CRS

Scope of a computerised reservation system

Scope of a computerised reservations system may be related to:

  • Industry-wide access and use
  • Use only within an individual property
  • Agents
  • Service providers
  • Direct customer bookings
crs functions
CRS functions

Functions performed on a central reservations system

  • Interrogating and amending existing data
  • Making reservations, including group, individual, corporate, in-house, commission basis
  • Amending reservations, such as extending or changing dates, altering flights, changing room numbers
  • Determining vacancies and current level of availability, including tickets, seats, rooms
crs functions1
CRS functions

Functions performed on a central reservations system

  • Recording customer details
  • Recording special request details
  • Creating internal and management reports
  • Generating client histories and preferences
  • Generating mailing lists
  • Creating marketing information
  • Preparing limited accounting statements
crs functions2
CRS functions

Functions performed on a Hospitality CRS

What functions or information would be kept for these functions:

  • Reservations
  • Profiles
  • Groups and blocks
  • Rate and inventory control
  • Administration
  • Reporting
crs functions3
CRS functions

Functions performed on a tourism CRS

  • Understand system assumptions for a quote
  • Interpret system codes and abbreviations
  • Enter the relevant segment, passenger, destination and date details
  • Create the quote
  • Search the ‘best fare’ quote
  • Cancel the quote
  • Amend the quote
  • Update the status of the booking
gds training
GDS training

Specialised GDS training courses need to be undertaken to attain necessary competencies with individual GDS systems:

  • What training would operators need to undertake?
  • What do these need to know?
gds training1
GDS training

These specialised courses relate to the features and functions of the individual system and address topics such as:

  • Key functions
  • Encoding and decoding
  • Status codes
  • System help facilities
  • Selling flights
  • Creating and updating files
  • E-ticketing
  • System abbreviations
understanding crs screens and displays
Understanding CRS screens and displays

Interpret the screens and displays

Regardless of the CRS system used it is important for users to be competent in being able to interpret the screens and displays relating to:

  • Identifying menus and sub-menus
  • Identifying information fields
  • Identifying drop-down menus
  • Identifying self-populating fields
understanding crs screens and displays1
Understanding CRS screens and displays

Interpret the screens and displays

  • Identifying multiple choice fields
  • Identifying mandatory fields
  • Identifying character limitations within information fields
  • Using the toolbar menu and using keystrokes to access fields and menus
understanding crs screens and displays2
Understanding CRS screens and displays

Interpret the screens and displays

  • Differentiating between levels of authorization and access
  • Creating and using passwords and User Identification to access screens and data
  • Using system-specific techniques to move between fields and screens
understanding crs screens and displays3
Understanding CRS screens and displays

Interpret screen displays

  • Prompts
  • Buttons/tabs
  • Options
  • Abbreviations
  • Acronyms
  • Questions
  • Information fields
  • Dates
understanding crs screens and displays4
Understanding CRS screens and displays

In-house interpretations of displays

Different establishments to describe and define certain fields with meanings and data, such as:

  • Dates
  • Prices
  • Room types
  • Room numbers
  • Packages

particular to their operational needs.

understanding crs screens and displays5
Understanding CRS screens and displays

In-house interpretations of displays

Systems may have codes to depict various pieces of information such as:

  • Different revenue stream
  • Guest type
  • Marketing information that the property seeks to capture
  • Payment methods
  • Booking source
crs training and support
CRS training and support

Need for CRS training and support

In order for any staff using a CRS system to become competent with the software being used in their workplace, they must:

  • Obtain, read, refer to and use the User’s Guide/Manual for their system
  • Obtain practical workplace training in the physical operation of the system
  • Research, understand and utilise the software support provided by the system suppliers
slide40

Element 2:

Operate the computerised reservation system

operate the computerised reservation system
Operate the computerised reservation system

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Access the computerised reservations system
  • Investigate information contained within the computerised reservations system
  • Check whether or not a reservation can be taken on the computerised reservations system
  • Accept and create a reservation on the computerised reservations system
operate the computerised reservation system1
Operate the computerised reservation system

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Retrieve a reservation on the computerised reservations system
  • Amend a reservation on the computerised reservations system
  • Print reservation details from the computerised reservations system
importance of reservations
Importance of reservations

Role of reservations

  • The reservations department is a vital link in any hotel operation
  • The reservations area is where guests have their first contact with an organisation and therefore make their first impressions
importance of reservations1
Importance of reservations

Role of reservations

Three key roles of reservations is to:

  • Providing relevant information
  • Encouraging the sale
  • Making the booking
passwords
Passwords

Passwords and User IDs

  • Why is it important to have passwords?
  • How often should they be changed?
  • How else can you protect the privacy of information on the system when you have ‘logged into the system’?
system information
System information

Investigating information

Investigate information may include:

  • Applying access codes
  • Interpreting and using on-screen prompts todetermine required information
  • Interpreting and applying on-screen abbreviations, acronyms and options
accessing system information
Accessing system information

Investigating information

  • Using navigation tools such as buttons and tabs
  • Applying correct date formats within the system
  • Adhering to system protocols and field size limitations
  • Completing required fields
  • Describing the field and menu linksavailable between screens
accessing system information1
Accessing system information

Using system features to access a range of information

Typically a receptionist with responsibility for bookings will repeatedly be involved in:

  • Checking for room availability on the required dates
  • Entering the guest and reservation details
  • Varying the booking as required
  • Checking the guest in
  • Posting charges to guest folios
  • Preparing and presenting guest accounts
  • Accepting payment
  • Checking the guest out
accessing system information2
Accessing system information

Example – Front Office information that can be accessed

  • Folio clearance
  • Night audit information
  • Room charge update
  • Rooming rebuild/calendar update
  • Transaction summary
  • Internal management reports
checking reservation availability
Checking reservation availability

The balancing act of reservations

When times are busy, the reservations team must try to fill the hotel whilst:

  • Filling hotel rooms at competitive rates
  • Not overbooking the hotel
  • Generating higher room rates
checking reservation availability1
Checking reservation availability

Importance of checking reservation availability

  • All booking requests must be checked on the system before they are accepted
  • Whilst in most cases hotels or other hospitality and tourism businesses will try to find a way to ensure a reservation can be taken, at times however this is not possible
checking reservation availability2
Checking reservation availability

Methods of booking

Requests for bookings can come via the following mediums:

  • Telephone
  • Fax
  • Internet
  • Face-to-face walk-in enquiries
  • Mail
checking reservation availability3
Checking reservation availability

Sources of bookings

  • System referrals from other properties in the chain
  • Travel agents
  • Tour operators
  • Airlines
  • Family and friends of the guests
  • The guest themselves
  • Businesses
  • Groups
checking reservation availability4
Checking reservation availability

Obtaining the basic reservation information

In order to check room availability you must determine:

  • Date of the first night
  • Date of the last night
  • Type of room sought
  • Name of guest or business seeking accommodation
  • Identifying if they are a VIP, ‘blocked’ or ‘black listed’
  • Identification of any other potentially limiting factors
checking reservation availability5
Checking reservation availability

Considerations

  • Minimum stay lengths/minimum nights
  • Peak time/prime time
  • Stops/stop sell
creating new reservations
Creating new reservations

Information to record

  • Date of arrival
  • Date of departure
  • Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA
  • Estimated Time of Departure (ETD)
  • Number of nights
  • Name in full
  • Personal details
  • Room type
  • Number of adults and children
creating new reservations1
Creating new reservations

Information to record

  • Passport/ID number
  • Package type
  • Room rate
  • Method of payment
  • Booking taken by
  • Notes/comments
  • Room number
  • Marketing information
creating new reservations2
Creating new reservations

Types of reservations

  • Airline seats
  • Hotel rooms and accommodation at other facilities
  • Rental cars and other vehicles
  • Transportation
  • Transfers
  • Entertainment
  • Tours and cruises
creating new reservations3
Creating new reservations

Types of reservations

  • Entrances to tourist attractions, tourism sites or other sites of interest or significance
  • Travel insurance
  • Tour guiding services
  • Activities
  • Meals
  • Functions
  • Special items with customer’s corporate branding
creating new reservations4
Creating new reservations

Types of reservations

  • Special events
  • Venue facilities
  • Convention facilities
  • Speaker services
  • Audio-visual services
  • Meeting or event equipment
  • Special event consumable items
  • Food, beverage and general catering
creating new reservations5
Creating new reservations

Handling special requests

  • Disabled room
  • Room that has a balcony or outside are where people can smoke
  • Cot or high-chair
  • Fold-away bed
  • Champagne and chocolate on arrival or at nominated times
  • Fresh fruit platter in the room
  • Flowers
creating new reservations6
Creating new reservations

Handling special requests

  • Room facing the ocean or garden or some other identified aspect
  • Interconnecting rooms
  • Adjacent rooms
  • A room located away from the lift
  • Bed board
  • Extra clothes hangers
  • Glass vases
creating new reservations7
Creating new reservations

Handling special requests

  • Voltage converters (240 to 220 volt)
  • Iron and ironing board
  • Booking in the dining room
  • Special food and beverages
  • Mobile phone rental
retrieving reservations
Retrieving reservations

Reasons to retrieve a reservation

Once a reservation has been made, you may need to retrieve it so as to:

  • Convert a tentative booking into a confirmed one
  • Modify the booking in one of many ways as advised by the guest
  • Add an advanced deposit
  • Cancel a reservation
  • Allocate a room
  • Effect a room change
amending reservations
Amending reservations

Types of amendments

  • Cancelling the reservation
  • Changing the date/s
  • Changing times
  • Changing customer names
  • Changing the number of people
  • Adding children or additional customers
amending reservations1
Amending reservations

Types of amendments

  • Changing seating arrangements
  • Adding special requests
  • Seeking a variation in rate
  • Splitting a reservation
  • Entering a deposit paid
amending reservations2
Amending reservations

Types of amendments

  • Changing the itinerary
  • Adding/deleting products or services
  • Entering invoice and payment details
  • Entering ticketing and voucher details
  • Cross-referencing multiple bookings
print reservation details
Print reservation details

Reasons for printing reservation details

  • Why does a reservation need to be printed?
  • Who needs this information?
  • How do we give confirmation information to customers?
slide69

Element 3:

Process reservations’ communications

process reservations communications
Process reservations’ communications

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Print reports from the computerised reservations system
  • Create and process internal communications using the computerised reservations system
  • Respond to external requests for information using the computerised reservations system
  • Create and process communications for external consumption
print reports
Print reports

Importance of reports

  • What reports are printed?
  • What information does it contain?
  • Who needs this information?
print reports1
Print reports

Purpose of reports

Reports can be used:

  • For the purposes of comparing cost from various product suppliers
  • Determining usage rates for various product suppliers
  • To help negotiate rates
  • To determine the currency of information held in the system
print reports2
Print reports

Categories of reports

Depending on the system being used, it is possible that available reports may include:

  • Accounting reports
  • Sales reports
  • Reservation reports
print reports3
Print reports

Examples of common reports

  • Expected arrivals
  • Reservation
  • Property forecast
  • Total booking activity
  • Stay activity
  • Monthly booking activity summary
print reports4
Print reports

Examples of common reports

  • Daily booking activity summary
  • Property detail
  • Property detail - room and rate information
  • Agent activity
  • Automatic allotment release
  • Delivery queue purge
print reports5
Print reports

Examples of common reports

  • Guest folios/accounts
  • Account balance
  • Future summary period statement
  • Guest details
  • Guest revisits
print reports6
Print reports

Examples of common reports

  • Occupancy reports
  • Corporate reports/business reports
  • Marketing reports
  • Forward reports/future projections
  • Mailing list
  • Guest requests
create internal communications
Create internal communications

Purpose of internal communications

Internal communications may relate to:

  • Providing designated information, data and statistics to other nominated staff who are linked to the system
  • Providing system update information to other departments within the enterprise to allow them to plan for changing booking levels
create internal communications1
Create internal communications

Purpose of internal communications

  • Ensuring only designated material is available and accessed
  • Ensuring currency and accuracy of material
  • Requiring confirmation of data sent to others
create internal communications2
Create internal communications

Types of internal communications

The possible list of things that may need to passed on to other departments is endless, but traditionally they can be seen to be classified as:

  • Special requests
  • Timing details
  • Special needs
  • Payment arrangements
  • Entertainment
  • Information relating to individual customers
create internal communications3
Create internal communications

Communicating details to appropriate departments and colleagues

What information do the following departments need in relation to reservations

  • Housekeeping
  • Food and beverage
  • Front office
  • Sales and marketing
  • Car parking
  • Valet
create internal communications4
Create internal communications

Types of internally used generic reports

  • Arrivals report
  • Departures report
  • No show report
  • Room status report
  • Special requests report
  • Occupancy forecast report
  • Average room rates report
create internal communications5
Create internal communications

Types of internally used generic reports

  • Multiple or double room occupancy report
  • Guest list by name report
  • Guest list by room report
  • Travel agents’ commission report
  • Special packages report
  • Market segment report
  • Rooms out of order report
create internal communications6
Create internal communications

Types of internally used generic reports

  • Daily room revenue summary report
  • Daily revenue summary report
  • Weekly trading summary report
  • Monthly trading summary
  • Year-to-date report
  • In-house activity report
responding to external requests
Responding to external requests

Besides preparing information for internal purposes, a hospitality or tourism establishment may also prepare and present property information for the advice and consumption of external people such as:

  • Businesses
  • Suppliers
  • Individuals
responding to external requests1
Responding to external requests

Types of external communication or requests received

Types of communication or requests received by external persons include:

  • Booking requests
  • Confirmed bookings
  • Mail or emails seeking more information or clarification of product knowledge
responding to external requests2
Responding to external requests

Product knowledge information

  • Room rates
  • Room types
  • In-room facilities
  • Room aspect
  • Smoking
responding to external requests3
Responding to external requests

Product knowledge information

  • Disabled rooms
  • Establishment facilities
  • In-house attractions
  • Local attractions and major events
  • Physical location of the property
responding to external requests4
Responding to external requests

Interpreting communications

Whilst the majority of communications will be relatively simple to interpret and understand will be some that present problems or challenges such as:

  • Information, advice or communications that arrives in a foreign language
  • Rate queries, currency differences and money-related issues
  • Requests for interpretation, explanation and applications of industry terminology that others are not familiar with
  • Information provided in coded or abbreviated format
responding to external requests5
Responding to external requests

Responses and actions to requests

There are a number of responses or actions that are appropriate for dealing with requests or information received by external people.

In the case of a travel company this can include:

  • Providing destination and specific product information and advice
  • Accessing and interpreting product information
  • Booking hotel rooms
  • Selling tourism products to the customer
responding to external requests6
Responding to external requests

Responses and actions to requests

  • Preparing quotations
  • Constructing airfares
  • Booking and coordinating a supplier service for the customer
  • Issuing customer travel documentation
  • Issuing crew documentation
  • Issuing air ticket
responding to external requests7
Responding to external requests

Responses and actions to requests

  • Organising functions
  • Processing and monitoring meeting or event registrations
  • Purchasing promotional products
  • Hiring special equipment
communications for external consumption
Communications for external consumption

Information for external consumption

Besides handling external requests, reservation staff will also need to produce communications that are used by a wide range of external persons:

  • What are examples?
communications for external consumption1
Communications for external consumption

Processing information for external consumption

Primarily, the processing of communications which is to be used by external businesses and individuals involves:

  • Responding to system-related queries
  • Accepting, confirming, denying, amending or following-up reservations
  • Forwarding sub-menu bookings
  • Translating communications from/into other languages
  • Converting currencies
  • Integrating updates from suppliers
communications for external consumption2
Communications for external consumption

Processing information for external consumption

  • Negotiating new deals based on new information or emerging trends for listing
  • Adding distribution channels to the CRS network
  • Generating invoices, accounts, folios and statements and distributing them as required
  • Generating and distributing relevant reports to other system users, affiliates, partners or related businesses