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Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response. Child Care Today, Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response. The health and safety of children and child care staff can be protected by using universal precautions.

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chapter 5 health safety and emergency response
Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • The health and safety of children and child care staff can be protected by using universal precautions.
  • A safety policy describes policies and procedures for ensuring children and staff safety.
  • Certification and training in first aid and other emergency skills help staff handle emergencies.
chapter 5 health safety and emergency response1
Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response
  • immunizations
  • pathogens
  • universal precautions
  • biohazardous
  • hypothermia
  • frostbite
  • heat exhaustion
  • screenings
  • safety policy
  • sensitivity
  • prevention
  • risk management plan
  • toxins
  • food service sanitation certificate
  • abdominal thrust
  • cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • automated external defibrillation

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

slide3

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Promoting Children’s Health

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Positive environmental factors such as good nutrition, daily exercise, regular health checkups, and clean, safe home and school environments contribute to the health and wellness of children.
  • During the early childhood years, illness, injury, and poor nutrition can interfere with children’s normal brain and body development.
slide4

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Health Records and Emergency Forms

Health reports include records of immunizations and information about known conditions, diseases, or other problems.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

immunizations

Vaccines that protect children from certain diseases.

slide5

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Health Records and Emergency Forms

  • Health records list the results of health checks and screenings. Health records include

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • known conditions.
  • diseases.
  • immunizations.
  • developmental growth.
  • allergies.
  • medications.
  • medical problems or injuries.
slide6

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Limiting Contagious Illness

Pathogens include bacteria and viruses.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

pathogens

Disease-causing organisms; germs.

slide7

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Limiting Contagious Illness

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Children are subject to many infectious diseases such as colds, influenza, and strep throat.
  • Everything touched, such as toys, food, and other people, is a possible source of illness.
slide8

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Using Universal Precautions

Universal precautions must be followed to prevent direct contact with bodily fluids such as urine, feces, and vomit.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

universal precautions

Infection-control guidelines staff must follow to protect themselves from infectious disease and to limit its spread.

slide9

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Using Universal Precautions

Biohazardous materials include diapers, diaper wipes, used disposable gloves, and blood-soaked clothes.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

biohazardous

Materials that come into contact with bodily fluids.

slide10

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Using Universal Precautions

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Hand Washing

    • Limit the spread of contagious diseases by frequent and thorough hand washing.
  • Environmental Disinfection
    • Clean, sanitize, or disinfect hard surfaces.
  • Wearing Gloves
    • Wear fresh gloves when you come into contact with bodily fluids.
  • Disposal of Biohazardous Materials
    • Double-bag and tie biohazardous materials.
slide11

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Limiting Weather-Related Illness

Shivering is a sign that a child may be experiencing hypothermia.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

hypothermia

Occurs when the body’s temperature gets dangerously low.

slide12

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Limiting Weather-Related Illness

Even if dressed in warm and waterproof clothing, children may still get frostbite if they are outside for long periods in severely cold weather.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

frostbite

The freezing of body tissue, usually the feet, hands, face, and ears.

slide13

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Limiting Weather-Related Illness

Heat exhaustion can be prevented by not allowing children to play outdoors for long periods during very hot weather.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

heatexhaustion

A form of physical stress on the body caused by overheating, resulting in dizziness and fatigue caused by the loss of fluid and salt through profuse sweating.

slide14

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Limiting Weather-Related Illness

  • Child care professionals need to protect children from extreme weather illnesses and risks:

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Hypothermia
  • Frostbite
  • Heat exhaustion
  • Heatstroke
  • Sunburn
  • Air pollution
slide15

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Handling and Reporting Illness

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Even in the best of environments, illness occurs.
  • Child care professionals work to limit the spread of disease and care for ill children.
  • Child care professionals record health information to comply with health codes and licensing requirements.
slide16

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Health Checks and Screenings

Vision and hearing screenings usually start at age three.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

screenings

Examinations given to a group of children to look for one specific health problem.

slide17

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Health Checks and Screenings

Check daily for

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • energy level.
  • appetite.
  • coughs.
  • congestion.
  • rash.
  • watery eyes.
  • inflamed throat.
  • fever.
  • runny nose.
  • tiredness.
  • crankiness.
slide18

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Common Childhood Illnesses

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

slide19

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Health Checks and Screenings

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Restricting Attendance
    • Children with a contagious illness should stay home.
  • Reporting Illness and Informing Parents
    • Report contagious diseases to the public health department.
    • Inform parents about outbreaks at the center.
  • Medication Procedures
    • State licensing laws may restrict dispensing medicine in child care settings.
    • Parents complete and sign a medication permission form.
slide20

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Special Health Concerns

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Some children have health conditions that require special attention.
  • Care and medication details should be noted in enrollment records and discussed with parents.
  • Child care professionals need to respond to a child’s individual needs.
slide21

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Conditions That Impact Child Health

Children with severe allergies have an extreme sensitivity to common substances such as peanuts or animal fur.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

sensitivity

Reaction; capacity for physical sensation or response.

slide22

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Conditions That Impact Child Health

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Allergies

  • Some allergic reactions require medical assistance or are life-threatening.

Asthma

  • Coughing, wheezing, rapid breathing, and shortness of breath are signs of an asthma attack.
  • Asthma attacks can be triggered by an allergic reaction, dust, air pollution, physical exercise, smoke, and pets.
slide23

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Conditions That Impact Child Health

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Diabetes
    • Diabetes is a condition in which the body does not produce insulin.
    • Diabetes is usually controlled through medication and diet.

Drug Exposure

    • Prenatal drug exposure affects a child’s health and overall development.
    • Drug-exposed children require special care to address possible developmental delays.
slide24

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Conditions That Impact Child Health

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Giardiasis

  • Giardiasis is a contagious intestinal disease caused by a parasite that results in diarrhea.
  • Proper diapering and hand washing can prevent the spread of giardiasis.

Head Lice

  • Head lice are small insects that live close to the scalp on human hair.
  • Signs of lice include itching at the roots of the hair and small red bite marks on the scalp.
slide25

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Conditions That Impact Child Health

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • HIV attacks and slowly weakens the immune system.
  • A person with HIV has frequent illnesses that the weakened immune system cannot easily fight off.
  • This cycle of repeated illness is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
  • HIV can be treated with medication, but at this time, there is no known cure for HIV or AIDS.
slide26

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Enrollment of Children with Health Conditions

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) protects children’s rights to be enrolled in child care whenever reasonably possible.
  • Information about a child’s health is limited to the primary teacher and the program director.
  • Staff should work cooperatively with parents to receive training in order to provide the child with the best care possible.
slide27

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Ensuring Children’s Safety

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • The most important safety precaution in group child care is adequate and continuous supervision of children.
  • Children should always be monitored and cared for in safe conditions.
  • Children need teachers who model good safety practices during classroom activities.
slide28

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Safety Risks for Children

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Children are exposed to hazards in both indoor and outdoor environments.
  • Staff members must make sure the furniture, toys, and play structures are safe.
slide29

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Developing a Safety Policy

Early childhood program directors develop a safety policy to ensure safe conditions.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

safety policy

A statement of the rules and procedures that protect children and staff.

slide30

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Developing a Safety Policy

  • A safety policy addresses

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • the facility.
  • transportation.
  • toy safety and safety inspections.
  • emergency and evacuation procedures.
  • rules for children's conduct.
  • positive methods of discipline.
  • dealing with strangers.
slide31

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Developing a Safety Policy

Creating and following a risk management plan helps staff and children remain calm and respond quickly to any emergency.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

risk management plan

Emergency procedures established in writing.

slide32

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Developing a Safety Policy

Risk Management Plans

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Risk management plans contain procedures for
  • fire.
  • weather emergencies.
  • bomb or other violent threats.
  • health-related epidemics.
  • keeping survival supplies on hand.
slide33

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Developing a Safety Policy

  • The American Red Cross and local safety agencies can provide information on preparation and response.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Fire Evacuation Drills
    • Fire evacuation diagrams must be posted.
    • Hold fire drills monthly.
  • Severe Weather and Disaster Drills
    • Electrical storms, tornadoes, hurricanes, blizzards, floods, earthquakes, mudslides, wildfires, and explosions require an evacuation plan.
slide34

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Injury and Accident Prevention

Careful observation is important for accident prevention.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

prevention

Taking action to keep something from happening.

slide35

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Injury and Accident Prevention

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • The number and severity of incidents can be limited with prevention.
  • Always be alert to safety hazards that put children in danger.
  • Respond quickly and calmly to prevent children from hurting themselves or others.
slide36

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Injury and Accident Prevention

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Safety Inspections

    • Inspect indoor and outdoor areas daily.
    • Use a checklist to check toys and equipment for wear and damage.
    • Report hazards and dispose of litter.
  • Transportation Safety
    • Conduct vehicle safety inspections and use appropriate equipment and safety restraints.
    • Ensure that drivers are legally licensed.
slide37

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Injury and Accident Prevention

Field Trip Safety

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Park vehicles in a safe, off-street area.
  • Give each child a name tag with the program’s name and telephone number.
  • Invite parents along to increase supervision.
  • Count the number of children before leaving on the field trip and count them several times during the trip.
slide38

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Safety Documentation

  • Staff members need to be familiar with forms pertaining to

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • injuries.
  • suspected abuse.
  • releasing children.
  • emergency treatment waiver.
slide39

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Staff Health and Safety

Toxins can cause various illnesses, from rashes to flulike illness.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

toxins

Contagious diseases and harmful substances.

slide40

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Ensuring Staff Health and Safety

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines help employers prevent work-related injuries and illness.
  • Staff members should obtain first aid and CPR certificates.
  • Many states require fingerprinting and a criminal background check.
slide41

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Ensuring Staff Health and Safety

Leave Policies and Staff Substitutes

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Sick leave
  • Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)
  • When a staff member is absent from work, it is the director’s responsibility to find another qualified worker to fill the position.
slide42

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Ensuring Staff Health and Safety

Managers and staff may be required to obtain a food service sanitation certificate to demonstrate that they are qualified to safely handle food.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

food service sanitation certificate

Received after passing a state-administered test covering proper food-handling practices.

slide43

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Ensuring Staff Health and Safety

Certifying Food Service Staff

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Food service staff must be regularly trained in proper food-handling and sanitation practices.
  • Food service staff should follow the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) food safety guidelines: clean, separate, cook, chill, and serve.
slide44

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Emergency Skills

  • Staff need emergency skills training to respond to life-threatening injuries and situations.
  • The American Red Cross provides first aid, CPR, and other emergency skills training that can be used with infants, children, and adults.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

slide45

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Treating Minor Injuries

  • Keep a first aid kit on hand for minor injuries:

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • bandages
  • gauze pads and strips
  • adhesive tape
  • antiseptic wipes
  • antibiotic ointment
  • cold compress
  • scissors
  • disposable latex or vinyl gloves
  • tweezers
slide46

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

First Aid Basics

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

slide47

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Treating Serious Injuries

Choking victims should be treated with an abdominal thrust. An abdominal thrust should not be used on infants because of the possibility of internal injury.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

abdominal thrust

A quick, upward thrust with the heel of the hand into the abdomen that forces air out from the lungs to expel an object caught in the throat.

slide48

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Treating Serious Injuries

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can keep a person alive until emergency medical professionals arrive.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

To help the heart circulate blood, chest compressions and gentle puffs of air are given when a person does not have a detectable heartbeat or pulse.

slide49

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Treating Serious Injuries

Many states require that early childhood providers be trained in automated external defibrillation (AED).

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

automated external defibrillation

A procedure used when there has been a disruption in a person’s regular heart rhythm.

slide50

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Treating Serious Injuries

Choking

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Young children tend to put all kinds of objects into their mouths.
  • Choking victims need immediate attention.
  • For children older than one, use abdominal thrusts.
  • For infants, use back blows and chest thrusts.
slide51

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Treating Serious Injuries

Rescue Breathing

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • If a child stops breathing but has a heartbeat, staff must use rescue breathing to breathe for the child.
  • Staff members must be certified in order to perform rescue breathing.
slide52

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Treating Serious Injuries

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Chest compressions and gentle puffs of air are given to the person to help the heart circulate blood.
  • CPR can keep a person alive until emergency medical professionals arrive.
  • Staff members must be certified in CPR before they can apply the technique.
slide53

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Treating Serious Injuries

Automated External Defibrillation

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • This procedure is used when there has been a disruption in a person’s regular heart rhythm.
  • AED requires an electrical shock that reestablishes a normal heart rhythm.
  • Early CPR helps circulate blood to body organs while an AED is prepared for use.
slide54

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Treating Serious Injuries

Accidental Poisoning

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Immediately call a poison control center if you see these signs:
  • burns around or in the mouth and throat
  • nausea or vomiting
  • burns or rash on the skin
  • burning or irritation of the eyes or blindness
  • choking, coughing, headache, or dizziness
slide55

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Handling Emergency Evacuations

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Immediately escort children out of the building or to the designated safe place.
  • Designate one care provider to take the sign-in sheet to account for children when safe.
  • When in the safe place, notify parents.
slide56

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Review Key Concepts

Describe how child care professionals can limit the spread of contagious diseases.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Hand Washing—Limit the spread of contagious diseases by frequent and thorough hand washing.
  • Environmental Disinfection—Clean, sanitize, or disinfect hard surfaces.
  • Wearing Gloves—Wear fresh gloves when you come into contact with bodily fluids.
  • Disposal of Biohazardous Materials—Double-bag and tie biohazardous materials.
slide57

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Review Key Concepts

Explain the practices child care professionals use to check for and report illnesses.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Check daily for health problems.
  • Hold regular health screenings.
  • Restrict attendance of sick staff and children.
  • Report illnesses to health agencies and parents.
  • Follow medication procedures.
slide58

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Review Key Concepts

Define seven special health conditions that can affect children.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Allergies: extreme sensitivity to a common substance.
  • Asthma: a lung condition that makes it difficult to breathe.
  • Diabetes: the body does not produce enough insulin.
  • Drug exposure: affects health and development.
  • Giardiasis: intestinal disease caused by a parasite.
  • Head lice: small insects that live on the scalp.
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): attacks and weakens the immune system.
slide59

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Review Key Concepts

Summarize the rules and procedures in an effective early childhood program safety policy.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • A safety policy addresses facility, transportation, and toy safety and safety inspections.
  • A safety policy also covers emergency and evacuation procedures, rules for children's conduct, positive methods of discipline, and dealing with strangers.
slide60

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Review Key Concepts

Identify procedures to maintain the health and safety of all staff members.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • Staff must consistently follow universal precautions to reduce their exposure to contagious disease and harmful substances.
  • All staff members are required to submit a physician’s report verifying their good health.
  • Each staff member must receive a negative result on a tuberculosis test annually.
  • Staff should get regular immunizations such as influenza, tetanus, and Hepatitis B.
slide61

Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

Review Key Concepts

List the emergency skills training needed by staff members.

Child Care Today,Chapter 5: Health, Safety, and Emergency Response

  • basic first aid
  • abdominal thrusts
  • back blows and chest thrusts
  • rescue breathing
  • cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
  • automated external defibrillation (AED)
  • Follow instructions from poison control center.
slide62

End of

Chapter 5Health, Safety, and Emergency Response