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歐洲幻奇文學 : 詩學、文類與歷史 PowerPoint Presentation
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歐洲幻奇文學 : 詩學、文類與歷史

歐洲幻奇文學 : 詩學、文類與歷史

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歐洲幻奇文學 : 詩學、文類與歷史

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  1. 歐洲幻奇文學: 詩學、文類與歷史 國立東華大學英美系 陳鏡羽 Fanfan Chen

  2. I. 幻奇一詞的字源、幻奇敘事創作與理論定義之崛起 • A. Fantastic, Fantastique, Fantasy字源探討 • 1. Fantastic 2. Fantasy 3. Fantastique

  3. I. A. Fantastic, Fantastique, Fantasy字源探討 • Fantastic: [obsolete] imaginary XIV; [obsolete] imaginative XV; extravagantly fanciful XVI. – Old French fantastique – Medieval Latin fantasticus, Late Latin phantasticus – Greek phantastikós, formed on phantázein make visible, phantázesthai have visions, imagine; […]. [Onions, 344]

  4. I. A. Fantastic, Fantastique, Fantasy字源探討 • Fantasy, phantasy: [obsolete] mental apprehension; obsolete phantom; obsolete delusive imagination; baseless supposition XIV; changeful mood XV; imagination XVI. – Old French fantasie (modern fantaisie) = Provençal fantazia, etc., Italian fantasia – Latin phantasia – Greek phantasíá appearance (later, phantom), mental process, sensuous perception, faculty of imagination, formed on phantázein; […]. [Onions, 344]

  5. I. A. Fantastic, Fantastique, Fantasy字源探討 • The Littré (1863): (1) fantastique only exists through imagination (2) it only appears to be a corporeal being. The dictionary also specifies that “fantastic tales generally refer to fairy tales, ghost tales and in particular, a genre of tales to be in vogue by German Hoffmann (Fantasiestücke), where the supernatural plays an important role. Hoffmann is one of the distinctive writers following the German tradition of the Märchen. This definition is also accepted by the Dictionnaire de l’Académie of 1878 and the Trésor de la Langue fraçaise (1980). Around this epoch (first half of the 19th Century), the word fantastique appears as a substantive to name a certain category of literary expression, i.e., a genre. [Le Robert]

  6. B. Fantastique成為文類之始 (19世紀浪漫主義): 德國創作、法國仿效與理論 • 1. Jacques Cazotte (The Devil in Love [Le diable amoureux], 1772); Jean Potocki (The Manuscript Found in Saragossa [Le Manuscrit trouvé à Saragosse], 1810) • 2. Hoffmann: The Sandman [Der Sandmann], The Golden Pot: A Modern Fairytale [Der goldne Topf. Ein Märchen aus der neuen Zeit], The Nutcracker [Nußknacker und Mausekönig] • 3. Charles Nodiers, Théophile Gautier

  7. B. Fantastique成為文類之始 (19世紀浪漫主義): 德國創作、法國仿效與理論 • 4. Charles Nodiers, Maupassant, Sartre, P. G. Castex, Schneider, Roger Caillois, Louis Vax, Jacques Finné, Tzvetan Todorov (Harold Bloom)

  8. C. 繼Freud與Todorov之後西方理論的發展與定義 • Eric Rabkin, C. N. Manlove, Brooke-Rose, T. E. Apter, Kathryn Hume, Jackson Rosemary, Gero von Wilpert, Zondergeld and Wiedenstried,Vittorio Strada, Richard Mathews, Jean-Luc Steinmetz, Roger Bozzetto, Denis Mellier, etc.

  9. I. C. 繼Freud與Todorov之後西方理論的發展與定義 • Jean-Luc Steinmetz 的主題分類 • Beings and Forms: 1. ghosts 2. vampire 3. double 4. automaton (golem, android, mannequin), mandragora (mandrake), shattered parts of the body. 5. monster • Actions: 1. apparition 2. possession 3. destruction 4. metamorphosis • Causative Principal: 1. reasonable explication 2. dream 3. magic or occult 4. drug 5. telekinesis, telepathy, hypnosis, animism or magnetism.

  10. D. 作品不斷逃脫定義與理論:作家自己的觀點 • Coleridge (1772-1834): suspension of disbelief • Charles Nodiers (1780-1844): false, vague, and true fantastic tales • Guy de Maupassant (1850-1893): ambiguity • H. P. Lovecraft (1890-1937): horror • J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973): Fairy-story • Julio Cortázar (1914-1984): Taoist mysticism and the non-dualistic fantastic • Stephen King (1947-): ambiguity and monstration • Léa Silho (1967-): myth, fantasy, fantastique, hard fantasy

  11. II. 詩學與文類 • A. Todorov的詩學與其「法式」幻奇文類(fantastique)之詩學理論 • 1. 文類之定義與文學性 • 2. 定義: (1)讀者/小說世界/猶豫 (2)小說人物 (3)非寓言與抒情詩的閱讀 • 3. 與鄰近文類之區別: l’étrange(the uncanny) 和le merveilleux (the marvellous) • 4. 幻奇敘事: utterance, the act of uttering, syntactical • 5. Gogol, Kafka

  12. II. A. Todorov「法式」幻奇文類(fantastique) 之形式詩學定義 • (1) The text obliges the reader to consider the world of the character as real. The reader has to hesitate between the supernatural (le merveilleux) and the natural (l’étrange) explanations. • (2) The character may also feel this kind of hesitation. Thus the reader identifies with the character. • (3) It is significant that the reader adopts a certain attitude towards the text: an allegorical or “poetic” interpretation must be refused.

  13. II. 詩學與文類 • B. Tolkien由語文學出發之仙境故事(Fairy-Story)次創造(sub-creation)理論 • 1. 兒童與成人 • 2. 神話, 語言, 童話 • 3. 仙境故事/神話創造四要素: Fantasy, Recovery, Escape, Consolation

  14. II. B. 神話與幻奇敘事 • Joseph von Eichendorff: Autumn Sorcery • John Keats: “La Belle Dame sans Merci” • Wagner’s Opera Tannhäuser • Goethe: “Erlkönig” • W. B. Yeats: “The Stolen Child” • Léa Silho: “Runaway Train” (changeling) • 吸血鬼傳說與文學神話

  15. II. 詩學與文類 • C. 由Plato, Aristotle詩學到虛幻想像理論 • 1. chora, 四大元素, 神話想像, 虛幻想像(老子) • 2. C. G. Jung, Gaston Bachelard, Gilbert Durand, Pierre Brunel, André Siganos, Christian Chelebourg, Paul Ricoeur, J.-C. Marion, Owen Barfield, J. R. R. Tolkien • 3. 參考中國志怪之論述

  16. II. 詩學與文類 • D. 由古典修辭學到新修辭學: 修辭到小說 • 1. hyperbole, euphemism, hypotyposis, metalepsis, mise en abyme • 2. 夢, 鏡子, 魔術師的帽子

  17. II. 詩學與文類 • E. 幻奇敘事創造、修辭與文體: 分析幻奇小說三面向

  18. III. 幻奇文學歷史研究: 歷史性與文學性 • A. 歷史性延續觀點: • Nodiers, Schneider, Caillois, C. N. Manlove, Vittorio Strada, Richard Mathews, Zondergeld and Wiedenstried

  19. III. 幻奇文學歷史研究: 歷史性與文學性 • B. 幻奇文學歷史分期理論與人類意識與語言演化的關係 • 1. 原始感受期 • 2. 神話製造期 • 3. 懷疑期 • 4. 去妄存真期

  20. III. 幻奇文學歷史研究: The fantastic in the Ancient World: • The GilgameshEpic (ca. 2500-1500 BC): an historical king of Uruk in Babylonia on the River Euphrates. • Enuma Elish (1000 BC): Babylonian epic • The Book of Mountains and Seas (1600 BC-771-221 BC) • The Mahabharata (400 BC-400 AD) • The Odyssey and The Illiad (Homer, 800-900 BC) • Prometheus Bound (Aeschylus, 525-456 BC) • Metamorphoses (Ovid, 1 AD?) • The Aeneid (Virgil, 1st century AD) • The Golden Ass (Apuleius 125?-200? AD) • Soushenji (In Search of Gods) (Gan Bao, 317-420 AD)

  21. III. The Medieval fantastic: • Beowulf (ca. 9th century) • Elder Edda (Vikings, Iceland, composed 800-1100, written down 1150-1250) • Thousand and One Nights (9th century): Sharazad vs. cruel King Shahriyar • Nibelungenlied (Germany, ca. 1200) • The Divine Comedy (Dante, 1265-1321) • Arthurian legends (5th-6th century) • Arthurian romance: Érec et Énide, Cligès, Yvain,Lancelot Perceval ou le Roman du Graal (Chrétien de Troyes, ca. 1135- c. 1190) • Parzival (Wolfram von Eschenbach, ca. 1170-ca. 1220) • Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (ca. 1370) • Le morte d’arthur (Sir Thomas Malory, 1469-1470/1485) • Journey to the West (Wu Cheng’en, 1592)

  22. III. Renaissance and Classicism: • Gargantua and Pantagruel (François Rabelais, 1495?-1553) • Don Quixote de la Mancha 1605 (Miguel de Cervantes, 1547-1616) • Faerie queene 1590 (Edmund Spenser, 1552?-1599) • The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus (published c. 1604) • A Midsummer Night’s Dream 1595-96 (William Shakespeare, 1564-1616) • Paradise Lost 1667 (John Milton, 1608-1674) • Fables (Jean de La Fontaine, 1621-1695) • Fairy tales (Charles Perrault, 1628-1703) • Gulliver’s travels 1726 (Jonathon Swift, 1667-1745)

  23. III. 1760-1810 suppression and extinction under the Enlightenment • 18th century: epoch of reason and science. Believes and divine power are doubted. Paradoxically, the fantastic is born as a “renaissance of the irrational” against the rationalist main stream. Occult influence: Swedenborg, Martines de Pasqually, Luis Claude de Saint-Martin.

  24. III. 1760-1810 suppression and extinction under the Enlightenment • England: • -The first Gothic novel: Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otrante (1764) • William Beckford’s Vathek: An Arabian Tale (1786, originally written in French) • The 1790s saw the heyday of the English Gothic: • Ann Radcliffe’s The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794) • Matthew Gregory Lewis’s The Monk (1796) • -Gothic novels in 19th century: combination of ancient faith and modern incredulity • Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) • Charles Robert Maturin’s Melmoth the Wanderer (1820) (German film: The Sin Eater) • John Polidori’s The Vampyre (after 1813 Byron’s poem “Giaour”)

  25. III. 1760-1810 suppression and extinction under the Enlightenment • France: • Jacques Cazotte’s Le Diable amoureux (1772) • Jean Potocki’s The Manuscrit trouvé à Saragosse (1797-1807)

  26. III. 1760-1810 suppression and extinction under the Enlightenment • Germany: • German fantastic is closely related to Märchen (fairytale): Volksmärchen and Kunstmärchen • Movement of Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress): tales are reintroduced. • Brothers Grimm’s Children's and Household Tales [Kinder- und Hausmärchen] (1807-1810/1819-1822) • Neo-Platonism, philosophical impact • Ludwig Tieck’s Eckbert le blond (1796), an example of Kunstmärchen • Goethe’s Faust [Faust: der Tragödie zweiter Teil] (Part I, 1806; Part II, 1832)

  27. III. 幻奇文學歷史研究: 歷史性與文學性 • 1810-1850: First generation “the Romantic fantastic” and the Golden Age • Napoleon wars in Europe and industrial revolution

  28. 1810-1850: First generation “the Romantic fantastic” • Germany: • E.T.A. Hoffmann (1771-1822): Fantasiestücke • Achim von Arnim (1781-1831): Les Héritiers du majorat • Adelbert von Chamisso (1781-1838): Peter Schlemihl • France: • Charles Nodier (1780-1844) • Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850) • Gérard de Nerval (1808-1855) • Prosper Mérimée (1803-1870) • Théophile Gautier (1811-1872)

  29. 1810-1850: First generation “the Romantic fantastic” • Russia : • Alexandre Pouchkine (1799-1837) • Nicolaï Gogol (1809-1852) • Fyodor Dostoevski (1821-1881) • Denmark: • Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875)

  30. 1810-1850: First generation “the Romantic fantastic” • Anglo-Saxon: • Washington Irving (1783-1855): Rip Van Winkle, The Spectre Bridegroom, The Adventure of the German Student • Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864): The House of the Seven Gables, Young Goodman Brown

  31. 1850-1900: The second generation • France: • Prosper Mérimée (1803-1870) • Guy de Maupassant (1850-1893) • Villiers de L’Isle-Adam (1838-1889) • Jules Verne (1828-1905)

  32. 1850-1900: The second generation • Anglo-Saxon: • Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) • Fitz James O’Brien (1828-1862) • Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894) • Charles Dickens (1812-1870) • Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu (1814-1873) • George MacDonald (1824-1905) • Lewis Carroll (1832-1898) • Bierce Ambrose (1842-1913)

  33. The Fantatic Fin de Siècle • France: • Jean Lorrain (1855-1906) • Marcel Schwob (1867-1905) • Anglo-Saxon: • Oscar Wilde (1856-1900) • Saki (1870-1916) • Henry James (1843-1916) • Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) • Algernon Blackwood (1869-1951) • G. K. Chesterton (1874-1936) • Lord Dunsany (1878-1957) • Germany: • Gustav Meyrinck (1868-1932) • Hans Heinz Ewers (1871-1943)

  34. IV. 幻奇小說範例: 詩學與美學 • A. 法式幻奇: 浪漫與寫實 • 1. The Venus of Illes [La Vénus d’Ille] (Prosper Mérimée, 1803-1870) • 2. Night: A Nightmare [La nuit] (Guy de Maupassant, 1850-1893)

  35. IV. 幻奇小說範例: 詩學與美學 • B. 童話幻奇 • 1. The Nutcracker [Nußknacker und Mausekönig] (E. T. A. Hoffmann, 1776-1822)

  36. IV. 幻奇小說範例: 詩學與美學 • C. 仙境故事/史詩奇幻 • 1. The Lord of the Rings (J. R. R. Tolkien, 1892-1973) • 2. The Neverending Story [Die Unendliche Geschichte] (Michael Ende, 1929-1995)

  37. IV. 幻奇小說範例: 詩學與美學 • D. 神話幻奇/硬奇幻 • 1. Les contes de la Tisseuse (Léa Silho, 1967-)

  38. IV. A. 1. The Venus of Illes [La Vénus d’Ille] (Prosper Mérimée, 1803-1870) • A perfect fantastic narrative: • A. Realistic cornerstone of the fantastic: • A geographical and historical realism (realistic setting) • B. Todorov’s norm and The Venus of Ille • 1. The natural explanation: • 2. The supernatural explanation

  39. IV. A. 1. The Venus of Illes [La Vénus d’Ille] (Prosper Mérimée, 1803-1870) • C. The mise en abyme mirrors the double features of the narrative • 1. the local scamps • 2. the pedestal inscription: CAVE AMANTEM: (1) Beware of him who loves thee; mistrust thy lovers (2) Beware if she loves thee • D. Atmosphere of fear and menace • 1. The supernatural clues • 2. Fear and uneasiness • 3. Evil: the statue Venus as a diabolical being through various visions • 4. Transgression • E. The ambiguity in characterization • F. Denouement: perpetual hesitation

  40. 2. Night: A Nightmare [La nuit] (Guy de Maupassant, 1850-1893) • J'étais aux quais, et une fraîcheur glaciale montait de la rivière. La Seine coulait-elle encore? Je voulus savoir, je trouvai l'escalier, je descendis... Je n'entendais pas le courant bouillonner sous les arches du pont... • I had reached the quays, and a cold chill rose from the river. Was the Seine still flowing ? I wanted to know, I found the steps and went down. I could not hear the current rushing under the bridge…

  41. 2. Night: A Nightmare [La nuit] (Guy de Maupassant, 1850-1893) • Des marches encore... puis du sable... de la vase... puis de l'eau... j'y trempai mon bras... elle coulait... froide... froide... froide... presque gelée... presque tarie... presque morte. • A few more step…. Then sand. … Mud. … then water. I dipped my hand into it. I was flowing… flowing… cold… cold… cold… almost frozen… almost dried up… almost dead.

  42. IV. A. 2. Night: A Nightmare [La nuit] (Guy de Maupassant, 1850-1893) • Et je sentais bien que je n'aurais plus jamais la force de remonter... et que j'allais mourir là... moi aussi, de faim — de fatigue — et de froid. • I fully realized that I should never have the strength to come up, and that I was going to die there… in my turn, of hunger, fatigue and cold.

  43. IV. B. 1. The Nutcracker [Nußknacker und Mausekönig] (Hoffmann, 1776-1822) • The mise en abyme

  44. IV. B. 1. The Nutcracker [Nußknacker und Mausekönig] (Hoffmann, 1776-1822) • Aufgewacht – aufgewacht • wollen zur Schlacht • noch diese Nacht • aufgewacht - auf zur Schlacht • Come, awake, measures take; • Out to the fight, out to the fight; • Shield the right, shield the right • Arm and away, this is the night

  45. IV. B. 1. The Nutcracker [Nußknacker und Mausekönig] (Hoffmann, 1776-1822) • Knack knack – knack • dummes Mausepack • dummer toller Schnack • Mausepack - Knack – Knack • Mausepack - Krick und Krack • wahrer Schnack. • Knack, knack, knack, • Stupid mousey pack, • All their skulls we’ll crack. • Mousey pack, knack, knack, • Mousey pack, crick and crack, • Cowardly lot of schnack!

  46. IV. B. 1. The Nutcracker [Nußknacker und Mausekönig] (Hoffmann, 1776-1822) • Aber wie wird es nun weiter werden? - Sowie Nußknacker herabspringt, geht auch das Quieken und Piepen wieder los. But what is going to happen now? At the moment when Nutcracker sprang down, the squeaking and piping began again worse than ever.

  47. IV. B. 1. The Nutcracker [Nußknacker und Mausekönig] (Hoffmann, 1776-1822) • Ach! unter dem großen Tische halten ja die fatalen Rotten unzähliger Mäuse und über alle ragt die abscheuliche Maus mit den sieben Köpfen hervor! - Wie wird das nun werden! – • Alas! Under the big table, the hordes of the mouse army had taken up a position, densely massed, under the command of the terrible mouse with the seven heads. So what is to be the result?

  48. V. 幻奇文學是經典的、嚴肅的研究主題、提供了愉悅的、淨化的審美經驗 • 由托爾金到中世紀文學研究、語文學、文學史 • 由托多洛夫到詩學、新修辭學、文體學 • 由虛幻想像神話批評理論到語言哲學、隱喻學、形上學本體論