Teaching Middle School Students to Reason with Visual Representations in Science. Jennifer G. Cromley , Nora Newcombe , Theodore W. Wills, Melanie Wills, Melissa Karakus , & Michael Batchelor
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Jennifer G. Cromley, Nora Newcombe, Theodore W. Wills, Melanie Wills, Melissa Karakus, & Michael Batchelor
Departments of Psychological Studies in Education, Curriculum, Instruction, and Technology in Education, and Department of Psychology
Temple University, Philadelphia, PA
The teacher presents the modified image, and gives students a minute to read (or reads to them) the questions and asks if there is enough information in the diagram to answer the questions. (The students should have difficulty answering them because the information in the labels is incomplete.)
1) Would the beam still follow the same path when the plates are charged? Explain. (or Would the glowing spot be in the same place when the plates were charged? Explain.) No. It would go through a different path which is pulled towards the positively charged plate. (No. It would be lower and closer to the positively charged plate.)
2) What happens to the beam when the plates are charged? The beam would be pulled towards the positively charged plates.
In addition to their roles in indicating magnification and indicating length, arrows can also be used to indicate that substances are changing (from one state to another, in this case).
Display the image above, which is a modified version of Figure 1 on Page 40
The Teacher should indicate that the arrows show that ice cubes and water are interchangeable through the processes of melting and freezing, and clouds and water are also interchangeable through the processes of condensation and evaporation.
The directions of the arrows show the states before and after the change (for example, changing from water to ice is the process of freezing, and changing from cloud to water is the process of condensation, etc).
Remind students that, from what they learned in Chapter 1, what is written in the arrows are naming labels which identify the processes.
Contrasting case work influences Visual representations work which influences Misconceptions/Prior knowledge work (and vice versa)