Summary to Date. Solutions are thermodynamically stable within a range of temperatures and compositions. Solutions more concentrated than their limit will tend to crystallize until the residual solution is back at the saturation limit.
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r = crystal radius
s = crystal solubility
(at a molecular level, how do things crystallize?)
Thermodynamic pressure for phase transition
Glass transition temperature
Conc. Solute, %
Ice Crystals in Ice Cream
Ice Crystal Size (mm)
1. Ice crystals grow from cold wall
2. Dasher cuts off dendrite
3. Dendrite grows in barrel center
Why do commercial freezers make smoother ice cream than domestic freezers?
and cooled to -18°C in a tunnel freezer
How does the number and size of crystals change in the hardening room?
How does the number and size of crystals change during distribution?