Infant Capacities and the Process of Change. The Development of Children (5 th ed.) Cole, Cole & Lightfoot Chapter 4. What does this mean?.
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The Development of Children (5th ed.)
Cole, Cole & Lightfoot
“Babies control and bring up their families as much as they are controlled by them; in fact, we may say that the family brings up a baby by being brought up by him.”
Erik Erikson in Childhood and Society
Compared with many animals that are able to negotiate their environments at birth almost as well as their parents, human beings are born in a state of marked immaturity…. For many years, human offspring must depend on their parents and other adults for their survival.”
Cole, Cole & Lightfoot, p. 114
Neurons and Neural Networks
Experience and Development
The CNS and the Brain
At birth, the brain has all the cells it will have, yet it is ¼ the size of an adult brain. Why?
Why the difference?
At 2 months of age:
Infants can distinguish among language sounds that do not occur in their native language, but this capacity diminishes during the first year of life.
Based on studies of infant eye movement when a striped visual field passes in front of the eyes, it is evident that visual capacity increases dramatically over the first few months of life.
Due to brain maturation
During first 2-3 months of life, infants begin their sleep with active (REM) sleep and then fall into quiet (NREM) sleep. Subsequently, the sequence reverses and shifts toward the adult pattern.
Newborns sleep ~16½ hours /day, but the longest period of sleep is only 3-4 hours.
Early feeding attempts are rather uncoordinated
Infant’s nostrils are blocked while he/she is attempting to feed
This elicits a head-withdrawal reflex that interferes with feeding
Later attempts become much more coordinated resulting in nursing – an evidence of learning.
In 1-month-old baby born without a cerebral cortex
Assimilation(Incorporated into anexisting schema)
Accommodation(Modification of aprior schema)
Leads to developmental stages…
Presence of milk stimulates infant sucking, which in turn triggers the release of hormones that increase milk production and release
Case in PointBottle-feeding vs. Breast-feeding
Occurs at 2½ MonthsSocial Smiling!