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Genetics. A Pedigree Question Mendel’s Experiments monohybrid cross – Segregation dihybrd cross – Independent Assortment Exceptions to Mendel’s Laws Incomplete Dominance Codominance (ABO blood Groups) Sex Linkage. Ataxia-Telangiectasia "Ay-TACK-see-uh  Teh-LAN-jick-TAY-sha". Ataxia

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Genetics

A Pedigree Question

Mendel’s Experiments

monohybrid cross – Segregation

dihybrd cross – Independent Assortment

Exceptions to Mendel’s Laws

Incomplete Dominance

Codominance (ABO blood Groups)

Sex Linkage

slide2

Ataxia-Telangiectasia

"Ay-TACK-see-uh  Teh-LAN-jick-TAY-sha"

Ataxia

Progressive degeneration of cerebellum that leads to lack of muscle control

slide3

Genetics

Ataxia-Telangiectasia

"Ay-TACK-see-uh  Teh-LAN-jick-TAY-sha"

Telangiectasia

Tiny red "spider" veins which appear in the corners

of the eyes or on the surface of the ears and cheeks exposed to sunlight.

slide4

Genetics

Female

male

Male with trait

slide5

Genetics

Marriage !

Divorce

slide6

Genetics

My Family

slide7

Genetics

Pedigree of Family with AT

slide8

Genetics

Pedigree of Family with AT

slide9

Genetics

Pedigree of Family with AT

slide10

WHAT WAS BLENDING THEORY?

  • sex = children
  • 2. Children look like parents
  • 3. Siblings not identical
slide11

Mendel’s Experiment

Green-seeded plants

Yellow-seeded plants

slide12

Green-seeded plants

Yellow-seeded plants

Yellow-seeded plants

slide13

Green-seeded plants

Yellow-seeded plants

Yellow-seeded plants

75% Yellow-seeded

plants

25% Green-seeded

plants

slide14

Some Terminology………

Gene

A segment of DNA

Allele

Different forms of a gene

Example: Plants have a gene that controls for height and there are several alleles that control various heights.

slide15

Some Terminology………

Phenotype – The traits that you see

Genotype – the alleles an individual has

Example: My phenotype for eye color is blue, but my genotype is “bb”.

slide16

Let’s look at two plants…….

Tall plant X Short plant

All Tall Plants

Which trait is dominant?

slide17

More terms…….

Dominant – If it is there, it is expressed

Recessive – allele that is only seen if there are two!

slide18

Let’s look at two plants…….

Tall plant X Short plant

All Tall Plants

Which trait is dominant? Tall

Can we tell which alleles are present in all plants?

slide19

Tall plant X Short plant

P

T

T

t

t

All Tall Plants

F1

T

t

slide20

Tall plant X Short plant

P

T

T

t

t

All Tall Plants

F1

T

t

Homozygous - TT or tt

Heterozygous - Tt

slide21

Tall plant X Short plant

P

T

T

t

t

All Tall Plants

F1

T

t

F2

????

slide22

How do we predict what will be in the F2?

1. What gametes will be made by each parent?

2. Punnett Square!

3. Phenotypic and Genotypic Ratios?

slide23

Monohybrid Crosses

Crosses that look at one trait at a time.

slide24

1. What gametes will be made by each parent?

2. Punnett Square!

3. Phenotypic and Genotypic Ratios?

slide26

The monohybrid cross led Mendel to the

PRINCIPLE OF SEGREGATION

EACH ORGANISM HAS TWO

DETERMINANTS FOR EACH TRAIT

AND THEY SEGREGATE

DURING THE

PRODUCTION OF GAMETES

slide27

Dihybrid Crosses

Crosses that look at two traits at a time

slide28

1. What gametes will be made by each parent?

2. Punnett Square!

3. Phenotypic and Genotypic Ratios?

slide29

The dihybrid cross led Mendel to the

PRINCIPLE OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT

GENES DISTRIBUTE OR ASSORT

INDEPENDENTLY OFEACH OTHER

slide30

Exceptions to Mendel’s Laws

Incomplete Dominance

Red

RR

WhiteR’R’

R

PinkRR’

slide31

Exceptions to Mendel’s Laws

Incomplete Dominance

HH

Homozygousfor ability to makeLDL receptors

hh

Homozygousfor inability to makeLDL receptors

Hh

Heterozygous

LDL

LDL

LDLreceptor

LDLreceptor

Cell

Cell

Normal

Mild disease

Severe disease

Normal

Mild disease

Severe disease

slide32

Exceptions to Mendel’s Laws

Codominance

A

B

AB

O

IAIA or IAi

IBIB or IBi

IAIB

ii

slide33

Exceptions to Mendel’s Laws

Codominance

BloodGroup(Phenotype)

AntibodiesPresent in

Blood

Reaction When Blood from Groups Below Is Mixed with Antibodies from Groups at Left

Genotypes

O

A

B

AB

Anti-A

Anti-B

O

ii

IA IA

or

IA i

A

Anti-B

IB IB

or

IB i

B

Anti-A

AB

IA IB

slide35

Exceptions to Mendel’s Laws

Sex Linkage

QueenVictoria

Albert

Alice

Louis

Alexandra

CzarNicholas IIof Russia

Alexis