Us r search terms and procedures
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US&R Search Terms and Procedures. Relevant Victim Location Information. Building use Type of occupancy Expected number of occupants Time of day and day of week Type of collapse Associated hazards Possible victim locations. Sources of Information. Pre-incident site plan

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Relevant victim location information
Relevant Victim Location Information

  • Building use

    • Type of occupancy

    • Expected number of occupants

  • Time of day and day of week

  • Type of collapse

  • Associated hazards

  • Possible victim locations

Sources of information
Sources of Information

  • Pre-incident site plan

  • Size-up and reconnaissance information

  • Verbal reports

    • Rescued victims, co-workers, witnesses, relatives

  • Contractors and building engineers

Types of us r search
Types of US&R Search

  • Hasty Search (Primary Search)

    • Rapid assessment

    • Assists in size-up

    • Helps determine priorities

  • Extensive/Grid Search (Secondary Search)

    • Thorough systematic search

    • Redundant search

    • Verification of victim location with alternate resources

    • Confirms “exact” victim location

Us r search categories
US&R Search Categories

  • Categories

    • Physical search

    • US&R canine search

    • Technical search

  • Effectiveness of various categories of search types

Physical search
Physical Search

  • Deployment of personnel for physical search

  • Advantages

    • Resources readily available

    • No high tech equipment/procedures needed

    • Can use volunteers

    • Visual sighting provides victim location verification

Physical search1
Physical Search

  • Disadvantages

    • Only for surface victims

    • Best during only daylight hours

    • Dangerous for search personnel

    • May miss some victims

Hailing system procedures
Hailing System Procedures

  • Surround search site with personnel

  • Call for silence

  • Personnel call out one by one – use clockwise rotation

  • After each call out, ALL personnel listen for response and point to direction of sound

  • Triangulate on victim location – may have multiple “fixes”

Hailing system
Hailing System

  • Advantages

    • Resources readily available

    • No high tech equipment/procedures needed

    • Triangulates on victim location

    • Can be used day or night with relative safety

Hailing system1
Hailing System

  • Disadvantages

    • Effectiveness diminishes after time due to victims decreasing ability to respond

    • Additional search tactics may be needed to pinpoint the exact location of the victim

    • May not locate all victims in collapse

Physical search procedures
Physical Search Procedures

  • Organize personnel to search area

    • Requires team leader

    • Establish good communications with IC

    • Use buddy system

  • Use building plans to plot progress and direct teams

  • Use hailing procedure if appropriate

  • Use proper search marking procedures

  • Enter if structure is sound

Physical search options
Physical Search Options

  • Search in organized manner

  • Don’t skip any rooms unless areas is unsafe

    • Small Rooms or areas

      • “Go right - stay right” method

    • Large rooms or areas

      • Line - search method

Contact with victims
Contact with Victims

  • Encourage victims not to give up

  • Explain situation

  • Assess victim position, entrapment and medical condition

  • “Interview” victim about other occupants

  • Leave rescuer(s) with victim if safe

  • Continue search until all victims are accounted for

  • Report to IC with findings

Us r canine search
US&R Canine Search

  • Specially trained and certified canine and handler teams

    • Caution using other non-certified canines form PD or wilderness environment

    • Possible harm to handler, victims or canines to trained for urban collapse environments

Canine search
Canine Search

  • Advantages

    • Can cover large areas in a short time span

    • Used for both Hasty and Extended grid searches

    • Can detect deeply buried victims who are able to or not able to respond themselves

    • Can differentiate between live or dead victims

Canine search1
Canine Search

  • Disadvantages

    • Very limited number or available teams

    • Can be temperamental

    • Canines affected by weather and physical condition

    • Additional search modes may have to be used to confirm victim location

Technical search
Technical Search

  • Three primary types

    • Electronic listening devices

    • Visual search devices

    • Other electronic devices

  • Requires trained users

  • Expensive

  • Some instruments very delicate

Listening devices
Listening Devices

  • Advantages

    • Very sensitive to deeply buried victims

    • Can cover large areas and pinpoint location of victims

    • Less sophisticated devices may be used by public works departments

Listening devices1
Listening Devices

  • Disadvantages

    • Usefulness of device diminishes with victims condition

    • Best when ambient noise is low

    • Should be used with hailing method

    • Does not locate all victims

Visual search devices
Visual Search Devices

  • Video and Optical

  • Advantages

    • Provides conclusive verification of victim location

    • Some devices can access openings ¼ inch wide and extend up to 10 feet deep

    • Flexible

    • Doesn’t require verification

Visual search devices1
Visual Search Devices

  • Disadvantages

    • Requires skilled operator

    • Limited field and depth of view

    • Limited reach

    • Does not locate call possible victims

Other search devices
Other Search Devices

  • Thermal sensing devices

    • Can see through smoke but not walls or even heavy dust

  • Infrared and UV sensing devices

    • Sees light radiation

    • Used for covert surveillances – not for US&R

  • Electromagnetic wave detection – Radar

    • Can detect heartbeat and respirations through 10 feet of concrete and steel debris