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The Vietnam War. Chapter 29. Where is it?. Who owned it?. French controlled up to WWII After Japanese surrendered French tried to regain control U.S. sent troops to assist Ho Chi Minh – wanted Vietnam independence and supported communism Vietminh – League for the Independence of Vietnam.

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the vietnam war

The Vietnam War

Chapter 29

who owned it
Who owned it?
  • French controlled up to WWII
  • After Japanese surrendered French tried to regain control
  • U.S. sent troops to assist
  • Ho Chi Minh – wanted Vietnam independence and supported communism
  • Vietminh – League for the Independence of Vietnam
domino theory
Domino Theory
  • The idea that if Vietnam fell to communism, the surrounding countries would also fall to communism
french surrender
French Surrender
  • French forces at Dien Bien Phu (military base) are attacked and eventually surrender
  • Geneva Accords – give independence to Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, Vietnam divided into two; free elections
communist rebellion
Communist Rebellion
  • US aides Ngo Dinh Diem – anti-communist leader of South Vietnam, not popular, Catholic, very little support
  • Vietcong – National Liberation Front rebel group that wanted Vietnam to reunite as a communist nation
  • Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)– tried to contain communism and stop its spread in Southeast Asia
u s in vietnam
U.S. in Vietnam
  • Kennedy sends 15,000 “advisors” 1961
  • Diem is overthrown & later assassinated - 1963
  • Kennedy is assassinated – 3 weeks later
  • Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara
  • General William Westmoreland
    • Advocated larger military force in Vietnam
    • Operation Rolling Thunder
us continued
US Continued
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – authorized the President to take any means necessary, gave Johnson much war power.
  • Napalm – sticky jellied gasoline
  • Agent Orange – herbicide
  • Doves – against war
  • Hawks – supported war and Johnson
  • Draftees- those drafted into service
anti war movements
Anti-War Movements
  • Teach-ins – In March 1965 a group of faculty members and students at the University of Michigan abandoned their classes and joined together in a teach-in.
  • Teach-ins as a form of war protests began to spread in America. In May 1965 122 colleges held a ‘National Teach-in’ by radio for more than 100,000 antiwar demostrators.
the credibility gap
The Credibility Gap
  • Vietnam became the first ‘television’ war or war that was televised on national TV.
  • Day after day millions of people saw images of wounded and dead Americans and began to doubt government reports.
  • In the view of many, a credibility gap had developed, meaning it was hard to believe what the Johnson Administration had been saying about the war.
68 the pivotal year
’68 the Pivotal Year
  • The Tet Offensive – on Jan. 30 1968, Tet, or the Vietnamese New Year was celebrated.
  • On this day the Vietcong and North Vietnamese launched a massive surprise attack.
  • At first the Vietcong and North Vietnam made major advances on American strong holds like the embassy in Saigon.
  • However, the US and South Vietnamese forces pushed them back and defeated the Communist regimes.
68 the pivotal year1
’68 the Pivotal Year
  • The President’s Administration looked at the Tet Offensive as a failed military plan by the enemy.
  • However, America had realized that winning in Vietnam might not be possible due to the fact that an enemy supposedly on the verge of defeat could launch a large-scale attack.
confusion in the united states
Confusion in the United States
  • Martin Luther King Jr. April 4, 1968
  • Robert Kennedy June 5, 1968
  • Protesters at the Democratic convention
    • Richard Nixon victorious in the 1968 election.
    • Moves war into Cambodia
    • Kent State
    • My Lai
    • Pentagon Papers
  • Paris Peace Accords – January 1973 – a cease-fire, U.S. troop withdrawal, & POWs returned
  • War Powers Act- President must consult with Congress before committing forces
  • Henry Kissinger – Nixon’s National Security Advisor & Sec of State
salt i and ii
  • Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty SALT I – limits on antiballistic missiles, & deployment of intercontinental ballistic missiles
  • SALT II Treaty – Set limit on number of weapons each side could hold - 1979
intercontinental ballistic missles
Intercontinental Ballistic Missles
  • ICBM, in full intercontinental ballistic missile, Land-based, nuclear-armed ballistic missile with a range of more than 3,500 miles (5,600 km). Only the United States, Russia, and China field land-based missiles of this range. The first ICBMs were deployed by the Soviet Union in 1958; the United States followed the next year and China some 20 years later. The principal U.S. ICBM is the silo-launched Minuteman missile. Submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with ranges comparable to ICBMs include the Trident missile, deployed by the United States and Britain, and several systems deployed by Russia, China, and France.
antiballistic missile
Antiballistic missile
  • antiballistic missile (ABM), Weapon designed to intercept and destroy ballistic missiles. Effective ABM systems have been sought since the Cold War, when the nuclear arms race raised the spectre of completedestruction by unstoppable ballistic missiles. In the late 1960s both the U.S. and the Soviet Union developed nuclear-armed ABM systems that combined a high-altitude interceptor missile (the U.S. Spartan and Soviet Galosh) with a terminal-phase interceptor (the U.S. Sprint and Soviet Gazelle). Both sides were limited by the 1972 Treaty on Antiballistic Missile Systems to one ABM location each
review for test people
Review for Test - People
  • Earl Warren – Chief Justice of Supreme Court
  • Esther Peterson – Director of the Women’s Bureau of the Dept of Labor under Kennedy
  • Neil Armstrong – First man on the moon
  • Thurgood Marshall – NAACP’s chief counsel
  • Fannie Lou Hamer – Organized the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
Martin Luther King Jr. – Minister that preached nonviolence (following Gandhi) in the effort to end segregation, registered African Americans to vote and gain equality for all, president of Southern Christian Leadership Conference, gave the “I Have a Dream” speech, arrested for protests, feared that Vietnam would overshadow Civil Rights Movement, youngest man to receive Nobel Peace Prize, assassinated in 1968
Marion Barry – SNCC’s first chairperson
  • James Farmer – Founder of CORE (the congress of Racial Equality
  • Stokely Carmichael – leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
  • James Meredith – first African American to attend the University of Mississippi
  • Linda Brown – Brown v. Board of Education
Ho Chi Minh – communist leader who wanted Vietnam reunited
  • Robert Kennedy – Assassinated brother of JFK, Democratic front runner at the time of death for 1968 election
  • Henry Kissinger – Nixon’s National Security Assistant
  • Le Duc Tho – peace negotiator for the North Vietnamese
  • Head Start - Preschool program for disadvantaged
  • Medicare – Health insurance/care for the elderly
  • Medicaid – Health insurance/care for the poor
  • Elections – TV, debates & advertisements
  • New Frontiers – spend (deficit) on space (moon) & defense
  • Flexible response – conventional weapons
  • Assassination – Warren Commission
  • Alliance for Progress – w/ Latin America
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Bay of Pigs
warren court
Warren Court
  • Reynolds v. Sims – voting districts-political power to the cities, each vote equal
  • Reapportionment – increased power of African Americans
civil rights
Civil Rights
  • Plessy v. Ferguson – separate but equal
  • Southern Manifesto – encouraged white southerners to NOT obey the law (defy)
  • Little Rock, AK – National Guard deployed
  • Selma, AL – chosen because of population majority, but voting minority
  • Kerner Commission – white society & racism made issues worse
Southern Christian Leadership Conference – end segregation & get African Americans registered to vote
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957 – protect these voting rights
  • Malcolm X – an integrated (non separated) society is possible, Representative of the black power movement
  • Vietminh – originally wanted independence from Japan
  • Truman assists France due to Korean War & fall of China to communism
  • Eisenhower – sends military advisors initially to assist South Vietnam
  • Johnson – wants to prevent China from entering Vietnam, does not attack supply line due to its location in non-warring countries
  • Gulf of Tonkin – gave war powers to Prez.
  • Educational Hearings – explain to Senate
Tet Offensive – showed willingness of North Vietnam to continue the fight, U.S. media begins to speak against war (criticize)
  • Operation Rolling Thunder – bombing campaign of North Vietnam
  • Nixon – expands war to Cambodia, U.S. public outcry against action, Gulf of Tonkin Resolution repealed
  • Pentagon papers – Government was NOT honest to public or Congress about Vietnam