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Dividing Africa. World History Chapter 12, Section 2 Mrs. Huston. Nearly 3 times the size of Europe Hundred of languages Diverse types of government some large others just villages. Africa is Huge!. Borders the Mediterranean Sea Includes the Sahara desert Part of the Muslim world

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dividing africa

Dividing Africa

World History

Chapter 12, Section 2

Mrs. Huston

africa is huge
Nearly 3 times the size of Europe

Hundred of languages

Diverse types of government

some large

others just villages

Africa is Huge!
north africa
Borders the Mediterranean Sea

Includes the Sahara desert

Part of the Muslim world

Still governed by the declining Ottoman Empire

North Africa
islamic revival
Led by UsmandanFodio

Wanted social and religious reform

Urged people to overthrow their European rulers

Islamic Revival
good times
Under Fodio and his successors, a powerful Muslim state grew in northern Nigeria

Literacy increased

Wars decreased

Trade improved

Good times
asante kingdom
Lived in forest regions of the north

Traded with Europeans and Muslims

Controlled several smaller states

Were resented by those they controlled

Asante Kingdom
east africa
Big Muslim influence

Two large port cities

Mombasa

Kilwa

Slave trade, ivory and copper

East Africa
southern africa
Zulus were a major tribe

Leader—Shaka

ruthless, brilliant

Conquered many neighbors

Caused mass migration and chaos in the region

Southern Africa
cape colony
Settled by the Dutch

British took over

Boers (Dutch) came north because they resented the British—Great Trek

Boers threatened the Zulus

Long war began

Cape Colony
the slave trade
Europeans began to outlaw it in the early 1800s, but didn’t end immediately

East African trade continued w/Asia

British created Sierra Leone for resettled slaves

US created Liberia nearby

The Slave Trade
more european contact
1500s-1700s trade with Africa along the coast

Several factors kept the Europeans from moving in

More European Contact
deterrents
African resistance

Difficult geography

Tropical diseases

Deterrents
what changed
New medicines reduced the effects of disease

Steamships enabled Europeans to go up the rivers

What changed?
who else
Missionaries:

Catholic

Protestant

Built schools and medical clinics

Paternalistic attitude

Who Else?
best known
Dr. David Livingstone

Traveled Africa for 30 years

Opposed slavery

Followed by Henry Stanley who looked for him

Best-known
colonies
King Leopold II of Belgium hired Stanley to explore the Congo River and make trade agreements

Other countries jumped in because they didn’t want to lose out on profit

Colonies
berlin conference
1884

Supposed to avoid fighting and bloodshed among European countries

No Africans invited

Berlin Conference
results
Recognized Leopold’s claims, but wanted free trade on the Congo and Niger rivers

European countries had to set up a government office in areas they were claiming

In the next 20 yrs, Europe divided up almost all of Africa among themselves

Results
leopold loses land
outrage over the reports of brutality in Leopold’s private domain caused him to be forced to turn it over to the Belgian governmentLeopold loses land
france
Already had Algeria

Extended along Mediterranean into Tunisia

Claimed land in West and Central Africa

France
britain
More scattered claims than France

More populated areas

Rich resources

Took the cape from the Boers in the Boer War

Britain
other countries
Join in for power, wealth, etc.

Portuguese: Angola and Mozambique

Italy: Libya, Somalia, etc.

Germany: Cameroon, Togo

Other countries
africans resist
SamoriTouré fought the French

British fought Zulus & Asante

Asante led by Yan Asantewaa

Nehanda led the Shona

Germans fought the Yao and Herero and the Maji-Maji Rebellion

Africans Resist
ethiopia
Ancient Christian kingdom

Managed to resist European colonization

Menelik II modernized his country

roads, bridges

school system

Only African nation to remain independent

Ethiopia
new african elite
Western educated--upper class

Some middle class Africans admired whites and rejected their own culture

Others valued African traditions, rejected white society and began to pursue independence

New African Elite
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