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More on digital media...

More on digital media...

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More on digital media...

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  1. More on digital media...

  2. First -- creative shooting/editing • Check YouTube -- note when to follow advice and when they’re not so good • Sample 1 / Sample 2 • Watch samples of final productions • Remember nonbroadcast TV formats • Institutional, not avocational • Documentary, interview, lecture, dramatic

  3. Before personal computers... • Mechanical computers • Vacuum tubes • Mainframe computers • Transistor (Bell labs / Shockley, Bardeen, Brattain) • Integrated circuit

  4. Personal Computers • World’s first personal computer? (kit) • MITS -- Altair 8800 • First mass market personal computer • IBM impact / open architecture • Compaq clone • First GUI (PARC - Zerox) / Apple / Windows • Mouse / Ethernet / wired / wireless

  5. Internet Review • Advanced Research Projects Agency • Pentagon / University relationship • LANs and WANs • Single location / wide geographic area • ARPANET combined with LANs and WANs became the Internet in 1983 • TCP/IP protocol (Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf) • Packet switching and IP addresses

  6. Domain Name System (DNS) • IP address 158.135.172.2 • Text-based DNS translates human language into the computer’s ‘phone number’ • TLD -- .com , .net, .edu. (also gTLD -- generic) • ccTLD -- country code -- .ca , .uk (list) • Determined by IANA -- Internet Assigned Numbers Authority • Organizational identifier -- tamu-commerce , google • Domain names administered by ICANN -- Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

  7. Programs on the Internet… • WWW -- Tim Berners-Lee devised HTML language which led to Mosaic • A browser interprets the HTML • What’s newer? • XML--extensible markup language • SOAP--simple objects access protocol (based on XML • XHTML--another form of XML • VRML

  8. Programs on the Internet… • E-mail • Newsgroups / Usenet (link) • Chat / IM (AIM, Google Talk, Meebo) • Telnet -- remote access to server • FTP -- like Fetch • Internet Phone (Skype, Netzero) • Web 2.0 (blogs, Second Life, podcasts…) Video streams (Bittorent, Veoh, Hulu, clicker)

  9. Internet & Broadband • Top 10 Broadcast Media Video Channels

  10. What’s going on today… • Blogs / moblogs / vlogs • Journalism / bloggers • RSS feeds • Podcasts, etc. / newsreader software • New economic models -- Google • Legal issues -- RIAA, MPAA • Other issues • Malware, Digital Divide, charging fees to Internet sites, net neutrality (Comcast)

  11. Mobile Computing Devices • PDAs • Functions / changes through the years • GPS • Vehicle fixed / portable • Satellite connection vs. most others • Cell Phones • iPhone example • Portable Video Games • GameBoy, Nintendo DS, Sony PSP / music, movies • Ultra Mobile PCs -- Origami / Microsoft (site) • CES -- Microsoft focus on touch technologies • iPad • Wearable Computers?

  12. Broadcasting vs. streaming • DVB-H (digital video broadcasting - handheld) standard for broadcasting to handsets • DMB (digital multimedia broadcasting) for multimedia broadcasting -- not available in North America • Streaming allows VOD -- AT&T Mobile , Verizon

  13. Developing Technologies • 3G cell phones -- packet and circuit switching • EV-DO example (more on phones later) • Wi-Fi • 802.11 and 802.11x refers to a family of specifications developed by the IEEE for wireless LAN technology. • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, pronounced I-triple-E • WiMax • Also known as IEEE 802.16--intended for wireless "metropolitan area networks". Provides broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km) for mobile stations. • WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard is limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet (30 - 100m).

  14. Why 802? • The 802 group is the section of the IEEE involved in network operations and technologies, including mid-sized networks and local networks. Group 15 deals specifically with wireless networking technologies, and includes the now ubiquitous 802.15.1 working group, which is also known as Bluetooth.

  15. Developing Technologies • Bluetooth • Name comes from Harald Bluetooth, king of Denmark in the late 900s • There are lots of different ways that electronic devices can connect to one another--Component cables, Electrical wires, Ethernet cables, WiFi, Infrared signals… • Bluetooth is essentially a networking standard that works at two levels: • It provides agreement at the physical level -- Bluetooth is a radio-frequency standard; • AND, it provides agreement at the protocol level, where products have to agree on when bits are sent, how many will be sent at a time, and how the parties in a conversation can be sure that the message received is the same as the message sent. (cell phone, GPS, PDA--Starfield example)

  16. Developing Technologies • Zigbee (actually ZigBee) • The set of specs built around the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless protocol. • Name "ZigBee" derived from the erratic zigging patterns many bees make between flowers when collecting pollen. The standard is regulated by a group known as the ZigBee Alliance, with over 150 members worldwide. • Bluetooth focuses on connectivity between large packet user devices--laptops, phones, major peripherals….ZigBee is designed to provide highly efficient connectivity between small packet devices.

  17. Developing Technologies • WPAN • Wireless personal area network • Bluetooth and Zigbee • RFID • “IBM Uses RFID to Track Conference Attendees” • “New chip promises to track kids from miles away” • Tracks things and people • DTV? / HD Radio • Multicasting channels -- data transmission? • Two way interactivity • FCC approval

  18. Developing Technologies • GSM (see 1G, 2G, 3G section) • GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) Uses a variation of TDMA; it’s the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephony technologies (TDMA, GSM, and CDMA). Digitizes and compresses data & sends it with two other streams of data, each in its own time slot. • CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) refers to any of several protocols used in so-called second-generation (2G) and third-generation (3G) wireless communications. CDMA is a form of multiplexing, allowing numerous signals to occupy a single transmission channel, optimizing the use of available bandwidth. • TDMA (time division multiple access) is a technology used in digital cellular telephone communication that divides each cellular channel into three time slots in order to increase the amount of data that can be carried.

  19. What is… • Digg? • Stumble Upon? • Photobucket? • Jumpcut? • The WayBack Machine? • The Machine is using us? • Otherwise going on…………. ?

  20. Web 2.0

  21. Technical changes • Copper wires to fiber optic cable • Circuit Switching to packet switching • Landline to wireless • Convergence of technologies and companies

  22. Technical examples • Fiber Optics, satellite, microwave • Making ‘free’ phone calls • (VoIP) • Skype • Magic Jack • Netzero Voice / Messenger / iChat • Jajah.com

  23. Cell phone Generations • ‘two-way radio’ style, then cells • ‘cellular’ process developed by (‘old’) AT&T • IG -- analog -- 1983 -- AMPS -- ‘advanced mobile phone service • 2G -- digital introduction -- early 1990s • CDMA, TDMA initially in the U.S. (CDMA: Sprint, Verizon) • GSM type adopted first in Europe (AT&T / T-Mobile) • 3G -- higher data transmission speeds -- switch to packet switching (AT&T article) -- 1-3 mbps • 4G -- up to about 10 mbps -- download speed

  24. Cell phone as a hybrid medium • Delivery of video to cellular phones is becoming more widespread… voice / data … and • Verizon’s V-Cast service; Sprint’s MobiTV service. • Both use the cellular network to deliver the content. • New service and technology, MediaFlo, developed by Qualcomm, uses part of the television broadcasting spectrum (channel 55) to send multi-media content to mobile phones. --see FloTV • Allows wireless carriers to offer video content without taking up much needed bandwidth in their cellular network.

  25. Broadband delivery -- wired • DSL • DSLAM / extenders (digital subscriber line access multiplexer) • IPTV (AT&T: U-verse, Verizon: FiOS) • Dedicated line (no slowdown) • Cable modem (DOCSIS -- 1.0 / 2.0 / 3.0) • Shared down trunk line (slowdown) • Information service / no open access • Fiber to the home/premises (FTTH/P) • FTTN -- fiber to the node (last mile is coaxial cable for cable & twisted-pair copper for DSL • Broadband over power line (BPL) • Interference • State approval

  26. Broadband delivery -- wireless • Fixed wireless broadband (FWB) (from MMDS) • 3G mobile wireless (4G / pre-4G) • Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) (‘WLAN’) • Wi-Max (802.16) • Satellite • HughesNet & WildBlue • Latency problem (VoIP, games) “a time delay between the moment something is initiated, and the moment one of its effects begins or becomes detectable” • Some downlink only (dial-up modem uplink)

  27. Broadband today (3) • Sites like Metacafe.com, blip.tv, Veoh.com Hulu.com and others are driving a whole new category of video that could eventually be a more popular format than 30 or 60 minute programs. • These days consumers themselves are driving this "broadband or TV" debate into irrelevance. They're busy accessing programming on demand - whether "broadband" or "TV" • This is through a host of devices and services whose popularity is only going to skyrocket in the future. These include TiVo, Xbox, Netflix (Wii), etc.

  28. Broadband Today (4) • With the proliferation of available broadband video comes a massive user navigation challenge. Modern Feed launched (4/8/08) to address this. Now Clicker. • Part search engine, part aggregator, with a specific focus on indexing professionally-produced programming, not user-generated video. It's also focused on actual programs, not promotional clips.

  29. Broadband Today (5) • J.D. Heilprin, Modern Feed's founder/CEO: • the company is targeting mainstream users providing the easiest way to find available, high-quality video. • It employs a team of "Feeders" charged with curating the best videos to include on the site. The result is approximately 550 "networks" and 25,000 pieces of content now indexed • ”Networks" is a loose term ranging from traditional broadcasters to indies new entrants like Boston Symphony or Architectural Digest.

  30. Home Networks • Residential gateway (aka - cable/DSL router) • ‘the key device in most home networks’ • Wired (server / hub / router) LAN • Wireless (wi-fi / WLAN / 802.11) • Interconnects all computers and other IP devices • Connects the home network to the broadband connection

  31. ‘Specs’ Technical specifications or standards • Like ‘color book’ standards? • HPNA -- Home Phoneline Networking Alliance -- technology, built on Ethernet, allows all the components of a home network to interact over the home's existing telephone wiring without disturbing the existing voice or fax services • IEEE -- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

  32. Proprietary or agreed-upon? • VHS vs. Beta (home) • DVD-R / DVD-RW vs. DVD+R / RW vs. RAM • HD-DVD vs. BluRay • WMA vs. RealPlayer vs. Quicktime etc. codecs • HDTV (8-VSB / COFDM)

  33. Home ‘hot spot’ Applications? • Multiple networked computers • Computers share one printer • Integration of phone / cable or satellite systems / DVR, Slingbox, etc. with IP • Security system connections • Control any IP device -- Microsoft has been working with Whirlpool to allow users to monitor their laundry with their home network, computer, TV, and cell phone. • Continuing growth in American homes operating a wireless network, making the US the leader in adoption of wireless home networks.

  34. Wireless security • Wireless ‘cloud’ -- public places • Encryption types • WEP -- Wired Equivalency Privacy • easily hacked -- do a ‘Cracking wi-fi’ or cracking WEP search on YouTubeWireless Hacking / WEP hacking / Free wi-fi anywhere • WPA -- Wi-Fi Protected Access • 128 bit encryption • WPA Personal -- password protected • WPA-Enterprise -- server verified • Evil Twins • Phony hotspots to steal information

  35. What else? • RFID (ubiquitous?) • Smart Home (video) / robotics • Speech recognition • Types: Discrete, continuous & complete • Speech recognition gone awry • Better success demo (click screen when page loads) • Ultra HD video (cinema--to replace film projection) • Electronic paper (Kindle, iPad) (e-paper demo) • Wikis • GIGO conundrum? • LA Times experiment • Google docs as collaborative authoring?

  36. Virtual / Augmented Reality (RWWW) • Second Life (promo/commercial) • Google Earth and other competitors • Education, Entertainment, etc. in a ‘virtual world’?