First -- creative shooting/editing • Check YouTube -- note when to follow advice and when they’re not so good • Sample 1 / Sample 2 • Watch samples of final productions • Remember nonbroadcast TV formats • Institutional, not avocational • Documentary, interview, lecture, dramatic
Before personal computers... • Mechanical computers • Vacuum tubes • Mainframe computers • Transistor (Bell labs / Shockley, Bardeen, Brattain) • Integrated circuit
Personal Computers • World’s first personal computer? (kit) • MITS -- Altair 8800 • First mass market personal computer • IBM impact / open architecture • Compaq clone • First GUI (PARC - Zerox) / Apple / Windows • Mouse / Ethernet / wired / wireless
Internet Review • Advanced Research Projects Agency • Pentagon / University relationship • LANs and WANs • Single location / wide geographic area • ARPANET combined with LANs and WANs became the Internet in 1983 • TCP/IP protocol (Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf) • Packet switching and IP addresses
Domain Name System (DNS) • IP address 220.127.116.11 • Text-based DNS translates human language into the computer’s ‘phone number’ • TLD -- .com , .net, .edu. (also gTLD -- generic) • ccTLD -- country code -- .ca , .uk (list) • Determined by IANA -- Internet Assigned Numbers Authority • Organizational identifier -- tamu-commerce , google • Domain names administered by ICANN -- Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
Programs on the Internet… • WWW -- Tim Berners-Lee devised HTML language which led to Mosaic • A browser interprets the HTML • What’s newer? • XML--extensible markup language • SOAP--simple objects access protocol (based on XML • XHTML--another form of XML • VRML
Programs on the Internet… • E-mail • Newsgroups / Usenet (link) • Chat / IM (AIM, Google Talk, Meebo) • Telnet -- remote access to server • FTP -- like Fetch • Internet Phone (Skype, Netzero) • Web 2.0 (blogs, Second Life, podcasts…) Video streams (Bittorent, Veoh, Hulu, clicker)
Internet & Broadband • Top 10 Broadcast Media Video Channels
What’s going on today… • Blogs / moblogs / vlogs • Journalism / bloggers • RSS feeds • Podcasts, etc. / newsreader software • New economic models -- Google • Legal issues -- RIAA, MPAA • Other issues • Malware, Digital Divide, charging fees to Internet sites, net neutrality (Comcast)
Mobile Computing Devices • PDAs • Functions / changes through the years • GPS • Vehicle fixed / portable • Satellite connection vs. most others • Cell Phones • iPhone example • Portable Video Games • GameBoy, Nintendo DS, Sony PSP / music, movies • Ultra Mobile PCs -- Origami / Microsoft (site) • CES -- Microsoft focus on touch technologies • iPad • Wearable Computers?
Broadcasting vs. streaming • DVB-H (digital video broadcasting - handheld) standard for broadcasting to handsets • DMB (digital multimedia broadcasting) for multimedia broadcasting -- not available in North America • Streaming allows VOD -- AT&T Mobile , Verizon
Developing Technologies • 3G cell phones -- packet and circuit switching • EV-DO example (more on phones later) • Wi-Fi • 802.11 and 802.11x refers to a family of specifications developed by the IEEE for wireless LAN technology. • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, pronounced I-triple-E • WiMax • Also known as IEEE 802.16--intended for wireless "metropolitan area networks". Provides broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km) for mobile stations. • WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard is limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet (30 - 100m).
Why 802? • The 802 group is the section of the IEEE involved in network operations and technologies, including mid-sized networks and local networks. Group 15 deals specifically with wireless networking technologies, and includes the now ubiquitous 802.15.1 working group, which is also known as Bluetooth.
Developing Technologies • Bluetooth • Name comes from Harald Bluetooth, king of Denmark in the late 900s • There are lots of different ways that electronic devices can connect to one another--Component cables, Electrical wires, Ethernet cables, WiFi, Infrared signals… • Bluetooth is essentially a networking standard that works at two levels: • It provides agreement at the physical level -- Bluetooth is a radio-frequency standard; • AND, it provides agreement at the protocol level, where products have to agree on when bits are sent, how many will be sent at a time, and how the parties in a conversation can be sure that the message received is the same as the message sent. (cell phone, GPS, PDA--Starfield example)
Developing Technologies • Zigbee (actually ZigBee) • The set of specs built around the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless protocol. • Name "ZigBee" derived from the erratic zigging patterns many bees make between flowers when collecting pollen. The standard is regulated by a group known as the ZigBee Alliance, with over 150 members worldwide. • Bluetooth focuses on connectivity between large packet user devices--laptops, phones, major peripherals….ZigBee is designed to provide highly efficient connectivity between small packet devices.
Developing Technologies • WPAN • Wireless personal area network • Bluetooth and Zigbee • RFID • “IBM Uses RFID to Track Conference Attendees” • “New chip promises to track kids from miles away” • Tracks things and people • DTV? / HD Radio • Multicasting channels -- data transmission? • Two way interactivity • FCC approval
Developing Technologies • GSM (see 1G, 2G, 3G section) • GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) Uses a variation of TDMA; it’s the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephony technologies (TDMA, GSM, and CDMA). Digitizes and compresses data & sends it with two other streams of data, each in its own time slot. • CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) refers to any of several protocols used in so-called second-generation (2G) and third-generation (3G) wireless communications. CDMA is a form of multiplexing, allowing numerous signals to occupy a single transmission channel, optimizing the use of available bandwidth. • TDMA (time division multiple access) is a technology used in digital cellular telephone communication that divides each cellular channel into three time slots in order to increase the amount of data that can be carried.
What is… • Digg? • Stumble Upon? • Photobucket? • Jumpcut? • The WayBack Machine? • The Machine is using us? • Otherwise going on…………. ?
Technical changes • Copper wires to fiber optic cable • Circuit Switching to packet switching • Landline to wireless • Convergence of technologies and companies
Technical examples • Fiber Optics, satellite, microwave • Making ‘free’ phone calls • (VoIP) • Skype • Magic Jack • Netzero Voice / Messenger / iChat • Jajah.com
Cell phone Generations • ‘two-way radio’ style, then cells • ‘cellular’ process developed by (‘old’) AT&T • IG -- analog -- 1983 -- AMPS -- ‘advanced mobile phone service • 2G -- digital introduction -- early 1990s • CDMA, TDMA initially in the U.S. (CDMA: Sprint, Verizon) • GSM type adopted first in Europe (AT&T / T-Mobile) • 3G -- higher data transmission speeds -- switch to packet switching (AT&T article) -- 1-3 mbps • 4G -- up to about 10 mbps -- download speed
Cell phone as a hybrid medium • Delivery of video to cellular phones is becoming more widespread… voice / data … and • Verizon’s V-Cast service; Sprint’s MobiTV service. • Both use the cellular network to deliver the content. • New service and technology, MediaFlo, developed by Qualcomm, uses part of the television broadcasting spectrum (channel 55) to send multi-media content to mobile phones. --see FloTV • Allows wireless carriers to offer video content without taking up much needed bandwidth in their cellular network.
Broadband delivery -- wired • DSL • DSLAM / extenders (digital subscriber line access multiplexer) • IPTV (AT&T: U-verse, Verizon: FiOS) • Dedicated line (no slowdown) • Cable modem (DOCSIS -- 1.0 / 2.0 / 3.0) • Shared down trunk line (slowdown) • Information service / no open access • Fiber to the home/premises (FTTH/P) • FTTN -- fiber to the node (last mile is coaxial cable for cable & twisted-pair copper for DSL • Broadband over power line (BPL) • Interference • State approval
Broadband delivery -- wireless • Fixed wireless broadband (FWB) (from MMDS) • 3G mobile wireless (4G / pre-4G) • Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) (‘WLAN’) • Wi-Max (802.16) • Satellite • HughesNet & WildBlue • Latency problem (VoIP, games) “a time delay between the moment something is initiated, and the moment one of its effects begins or becomes detectable” • Some downlink only (dial-up modem uplink)
Broadband today (3) • Sites like Metacafe.com, blip.tv, Veoh.com Hulu.com and others are driving a whole new category of video that could eventually be a more popular format than 30 or 60 minute programs. • These days consumers themselves are driving this "broadband or TV" debate into irrelevance. They're busy accessing programming on demand - whether "broadband" or "TV" • This is through a host of devices and services whose popularity is only going to skyrocket in the future. These include TiVo, Xbox, Netflix (Wii), etc.
Broadband Today (4) • With the proliferation of available broadband video comes a massive user navigation challenge. Modern Feed launched (4/8/08) to address this. Now Clicker. • Part search engine, part aggregator, with a specific focus on indexing professionally-produced programming, not user-generated video. It's also focused on actual programs, not promotional clips.
Broadband Today (5) • J.D. Heilprin, Modern Feed's founder/CEO: • the company is targeting mainstream users providing the easiest way to find available, high-quality video. • It employs a team of "Feeders" charged with curating the best videos to include on the site. The result is approximately 550 "networks" and 25,000 pieces of content now indexed • ”Networks" is a loose term ranging from traditional broadcasters to indies new entrants like Boston Symphony or Architectural Digest.
Home Networks • Residential gateway (aka - cable/DSL router) • ‘the key device in most home networks’ • Wired (server / hub / router) LAN • Wireless (wi-fi / WLAN / 802.11) • Interconnects all computers and other IP devices • Connects the home network to the broadband connection
‘Specs’ Technical specifications or standards • Like ‘color book’ standards? • HPNA -- Home Phoneline Networking Alliance -- technology, built on Ethernet, allows all the components of a home network to interact over the home's existing telephone wiring without disturbing the existing voice or fax services • IEEE -- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Proprietary or agreed-upon? • VHS vs. Beta (home) • DVD-R / DVD-RW vs. DVD+R / RW vs. RAM • HD-DVD vs. BluRay • WMA vs. RealPlayer vs. Quicktime etc. codecs • HDTV (8-VSB / COFDM)
Home ‘hot spot’ Applications? • Multiple networked computers • Computers share one printer • Integration of phone / cable or satellite systems / DVR, Slingbox, etc. with IP • Security system connections • Control any IP device -- Microsoft has been working with Whirlpool to allow users to monitor their laundry with their home network, computer, TV, and cell phone. • Continuing growth in American homes operating a wireless network, making the US the leader in adoption of wireless home networks.
Wireless security • Wireless ‘cloud’ -- public places • Encryption types • WEP -- Wired Equivalency Privacy • easily hacked -- do a ‘Cracking wi-fi’ or cracking WEP search on YouTubeWireless Hacking / WEP hacking / Free wi-fi anywhere • WPA -- Wi-Fi Protected Access • 128 bit encryption • WPA Personal -- password protected • WPA-Enterprise -- server verified • Evil Twins • Phony hotspots to steal information
What else? • RFID (ubiquitous?) • Smart Home (video) / robotics • Speech recognition • Types: Discrete, continuous & complete • Speech recognition gone awry • Better success demo (click screen when page loads) • Ultra HD video (cinema--to replace film projection) • Electronic paper (Kindle, iPad) (e-paper demo) • Wikis • GIGO conundrum? • LA Times experiment • Google docs as collaborative authoring?
Virtual / Augmented Reality (RWWW) • Second Life (promo/commercial) • Google Earth and other competitors • Education, Entertainment, etc. in a ‘virtual world’?