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Genes & Chromosomes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Genes & Chromosomes. Chromosomes - single large DNA molecule and its associated proteins, containing many genes; stores & transmits genetic info Gene - a chromosomal segment that codes for a single functional polypeptide chain or RNA molecule

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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Genes & Chromosomes' - holland


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Genes & Chromosomes

Chromosomes - single large DNA molecule and its associated proteins, containing many genes; stores & transmits genetic info

Gene - a chromosomal segment that codes for a single functional polypeptide chain or RNA molecule

Genome - all of cell’s genes + intergenic DNA (<10% of genome is genes)

chromatin (2 chromatids)

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Genes & Chromosomes

Genomes

Species/VirusGenome size

HIV 9000 bases

Bacteriophage l 48,500 bp

Flu virus 1.8 million bp

Bacteria (prok) 4.6 million bp

Yeast (euk) 15 million bp

C. elegans (worm, euk)) 97 million bp

Human (euk) 3 billion bp

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Genes & Chromosomes

Introns & Exons

Eukaryotic genes have many intervening sequences between gene sequences

gene sequences

intervening sequences

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Genes & Chromosomes

Size of genome vs. size of cell

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Genes & Chromosomes

Compaction of DNA

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Genes & Chromosomes

Compaction of DNA

Beads-on-a-string

Protein (histones, basic) + DNA (acidic) = Nucleosome

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Beads on a String

(in Colorado)

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Genes & Chromosomes

Compaction of DNA

Beads-on-a-string

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Genes & Chromosomes

Compaction of DNA

Supercoiling

Relaxed

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Genes & Chromosomes

Compaction of DNA

Important for DNA packaging, DNA replication

Topoisomerases can underwind and/or relax DNA