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Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary Rocks

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Sedimentary Rocks

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  1. Sedimentary Rocks Grand Canyon, USA White Cliffs of Dover, England

  2. Sedimentary Rocks Two Categories: Clastic – rocks formed from fragments (pieces) of other rocks Non-clastic – rocks formed chemically or organically

  3. Clast Rock fragment. (clay, silt, sand, etc.)

  4. http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es0602/es0602page02.cfm?chapter_no=investigationhttp://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es0602/es0602page02.cfm?chapter_no=investigation

  5. Deep Water Near Shore Limestone, Rock Salt, Dolostone, etc. Sandstone, Siltstone Conglomerate Shale

  6. Sorting- Refers to the distribution of clast sizes in a rock. • Well sorted- rock with few clast sizes 2. Poor sorted- rock with many different clast sizes

  7. Lithification- the process of turning loose sediment into solid rock. • Compaction • Cementation

  8. Compaction- Pressure pushes objects together into a smaller space.

  9. Chemical rocks- Form when minerals precipitate, or fall out of solution.

  10. Precipitation- water evaporates but the minerals stay (precipitate); opposite of dissolving Salt Flat

  11. Calcite- mineral formed from calcium, carbon, and oxygen. Reacts with acid (dissolves).

  12. Coquina Rock composed primarily of shell and/or coral fragments.

  13. Fossiliferous- Rock containing many fossils (limestone)

  14. Sedimentary Rock Layers (Strata)

  15. Uniformitarianism “The present is the key to the past” • Processes that exist today also existed hundred, thousands, and millions of years ago. • Rock deposition • Weathering & Erosion • Faulting, etc.

  16. Steno’s Three Principles • Principle of Superposition Oldest layers are deposited first; bottom layer 2. Principle of Original Horizontality Sedimentary rock layers are deposited parallel to the ground. 3. Lateral Continuity Rock layers are deposited over very large areas.