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Solitary and heterosexual behaviors. Masturbation Fantasy Shared sexual behavior. Masturbation. Historical and religious views A statistical analysis Myths and facts. Historical and religious views. Practiced by many ancient peoples Greek and Egyptian artwork

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solitary and heterosexual behaviors

Solitary and heterosexual behaviors

Masturbation

Fantasy

Shared sexual behavior

masturbation
Masturbation
  • Historical and religious views
  • A statistical analysis
  • Myths and facts
historical and religious views
Historical and religious views
  • Practiced by many ancient peoples
    • Greek and Egyptian artwork
    • Diogenes’ praise of masturbation
  • Not explicitly mentioned in Scripture
    • Forbidden in Talmud for men
      • A capital offense
    • Some Scriptures have been applied to masturbation
the modern era
The modern era
  • S.A.D. Tissot (1741): Onanism and the medicalization of sex
  • Victorian concerns with health
    • Loss of stamina and energy
    • Stress on the nervous system
    • Imbalance of fluids
  • Krafft-Ebing linked masturbation with insanity
effects of masturbation 1904
Effects of masturbation (1904)
  • …loss of memory and intelligence, morose and unequal disposition, aversion or indifference to legitimate pleasures and sports…stupid stolidity, etc.” (Walling)
child rearing in the late 1800s
Child-rearing in the late 1800s
  • Children are not naturally sexual.
  • They learn sexual interest through evil companions.
  • Alarms would alert the parents if the child touched his penis
  • Cages were available to keep hands away
  • Spiked rings produced pain if an erection occurred: Nocturnal emissions were wrong, too.
the american variant health foods
The American variant: Health foods
  • Sylvester Graham, C.W. Post, and Harvey Kellogg
  • The Boy Scout Handbook warned against masturbation until the late 1970s
  • Circumcision became popular in the belief that it would reduce masturbation.
current religious views
Current religious views
  • Judaism: Varies with branch
  • Islam: A sin, although the point is argued.
  • Roman Catholicism: “An intrinsically and seriously disordered act.”
  • Mainline Protestantism: Not a moral issue
conservative protestantism in disarray
Conservative Protestantism: In disarray.
  • Tson and Hayford vs. Dobson
  • Houghton College Counseling Center
  • Donald Joy
  • Some argue that it is the lust that is wrong.
  • Some argue that it is homosexual behavior.
  • Some argue that it is against the sense of Scripture.
attitudes toward masturbation
Attitudes toward masturbation

In my opinion,

masturbation is

Right

Wrong

Amoral

No opinion

1988

(N=29)

3 (10%)

6 (21%)

15 (52%)

5 (17%)

1995

(N=20)

12 (60%)

2 (10%)

2 (10%)

4 (20%)

Note: Class members responded anonymously

and voluntarily. Not all class members chose

to respond. Sample bias?

church attitudes about masturbation 1999 n 16
Church attitudes about masturbation, 1999 (N = 16)

Printed or official policy 0

Addressed from the pulpit 0

Small group/counseling topic 8

Never addressed 4

Positive and affirming 0

Permissive with warning 1

Discouraging 8

Prohibitive 2

No guidance 5

current social views
Current social views
  • The last taboo: Woody Allen and Jerry Seinfeld
  • NHSLS (1994) special methodology
  • “OK unless done to excess”
  • “Could be inappropriate” -- especially if married
  • 50% of practitioners feel guilty afterward
    • Why?
a statistical analysis
A statistical analysis
  • More men (>90%) than women (65-89%)
  • More educationmore masturbation
  • White, educated liberals most likely to
  • Devoutly religious folks masturbate less
  • 18-24 year olds masturbate less than 25-54 year olds
  • 50% of each gender feel guilty about it, but guilt inhibits masturbation only in women
more statistics
More statistics
  • 85% of men and 45% of women married or cohabiting had masturbated in the past twelve months
  • 60% of men and 40% of women overall had masturbated in the past twelve months
  • Conclusion?
nhsls reasons for masturbation
NHSLS reasons for masturbation

ReasonMenWomen

To relax 26 32

To relieve sexual tension 73 63

Partners unavailable 32 32

Partner unwilling 16 6

Boredom 11 5

Physical pleasure 40 42

Get to sleep 16 12

Fear of AIDS or other STDs 5 5

fantasy
Fantasy
  • Primary fantasy
  • Fantasy to facilitate masturbation
    • When is it lust?
  • Shared fantasy for sexual arousal
shared sexual behavior
Shared sexual behavior
  • Touching: When is it sexual?
  • Hugging and kissing
  • Caressing, fondling, stroking skin
  • Genital stimulation
    • Manual
    • Oral: Fellatio and cunnilingus
    • Genital apposition: “Dry-docking”, “outercourse”
intercourse
Intercourse
  • Vaginal: Significant risk for HIV and STD transmission
  • Anal: High risk for HIV transmission
  • Surface
    • Interfemoral
    • Intermammary
    • Intergluteal
  • 1001 Positions
appeal of various sexual practices nhsls ages 18 44
Appeal of various sexual practices, NHSLS, ages 18-44

(% rating very or somewhat appealing)

PracticeWomenMen

Vaginal intercourse 96 95

Watching partner disrobe 81 93

Receiving oral sex 68 83

Giving oral sex 57 76

Anal intercourse 5 14

What is the role of negative associations?

caveats for oral genital contact
Caveats for oral-genital contact
  • Basic hygeine is essential
  • STDs, including HIV can be transmitted
  • Non-STD infections may also occur
    • Bacterial infections of the throat
    • Infections of the genitals from mouth bacteria
    • Semen from infected prostates may be dangerous
  • Do not blow!
  • The effectiveness of barriers is unknown.
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