Secession of Katanga 1960 - 1965 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Secession of Katanga 1960 - 1965

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  1. Secession of Katanga1960 - 1965

  2. Focus for Contextualisation • Why did Katanga secede from independent Congo? • What were the immediate effects of this secession? • In what ways did the secession of Katanga develop an international dimension? • In what way was Ireland involved in the Secession of Katanga?

  3. Belgium & Congo

  4. Province of Katanga Katangawas the richest province in the Congo Source of uranium used in atomic bombs Mining companies had introduced, in some places, welfare programmes and education for its employees By 1950, one-third of the entire population of the Congo was Christian No educated native elite** N.B.

  5. The Congo at Independence • Former Belgian colony • 2.3 million square miles • 75 times larger than Belgium • 13 million native Congolese • 100,000 white (mainly Belgian) settlers • Congo contained about 200 separate & distinct tribes (own language) = ‘Ethnic Groups’

  6. Key Personalities: Belgian King Baudouin 1930 – 1993 King of Belgium ‘Mwana Kitoko’ 1951 - 1993 King Leopold II 1835 – 1909

  7. Key Personalities: Congolese Patrice Lumumba 1925 - 1961 1st leader of independent Congo (67 days) (MNC) Moise Tshombe 1919 – 1969 Pro-Belgian leader of Katanga (Conakat Party) Joseph Kasavubu 1910 – 1969 1st President of Republic of Congo (Abako Party)

  8. Independence Movements • ABAKO: tribal organisation based on support of Kongo people • CONAKAT: Led by Moise Tshombe, this Katangan group wanted to retain ties with Belgium and local self-government for Katanga • Congolese National Movement (MNC): Wanted a united, independent Congo. Congolese Nationalist movement, seeking a national, rather than tribal, support. Led by Patrice Lumumba

  9. Independence Approaches • President General de Gaulle of France announced a new departure in 1958, opening up the possibility & choice of independence for French colonies • This would affect large parts of the African continent e.g. Morocco, Algeria, The Congo, Sudan etc. • Rioting broke out in Leopoldville in January 1959. • In response, Belgian authorities agreed to local elections and a promise of future independence. • 120 political groups contested these elections, mostly along tribal lines of allegiance. • Only the MNC set a nationwide, electoral manifesto.

  10. The ‘Roundtable Conference’ 18th – 27th January 1960 • Kasavubu, Lumumba & Tshombe invited to Brussels to discuss the future of the Congo with Belgian Government

  11. 1960: Independence of Congo Democratic Republic of Congo & Secession of Katanga

  12. 1960 – Congo declared free by Belgium • Democratic Republic of the Congo • Province of Katanga attempted to secede – civil war • United Nations troops kept peace for four years • Former president of Katanga, MoiseTshombe, became prime minister in 1964

  13. Independence of Congo & Secession of Katanga 1960 - 1965 A Chronology of Events, Personalities & Conflicts

  14. 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966

  15. June 1960 - Congo becomes independent Patrice Lumumba: Joseph Kasavubu: Prime Minister President 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966

  16. July 1960: Army Mutiny & Katangan Secession Congolese Army Mutiny (5th July) Tshombe declares Katanga independent (secession) (11th July) Tshombe declared Katanga independent a couple of days later Supported by Belgian troops (6,000) & powerful business & industrial interests (companies)  “Seceding from chaos“: Tshombe Miltarised police force & mercenaries Luba province in north of Katanga seceded from Katanga itself • Issue over no pay raise to army, while all other Government employees received a pay raise • Rank & file soldiers of Force Publique rebelled against Officer Corps (mainly foreigners) • Rioting & looting throughout Leopoldville. • ‘Africanise’ the army: Armee Nationale Congolaise (ANC) • Belgian forces brought in, without permission, to protect Belgian settles and mining interests 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966

  17. September – December 1960:Chaos in Congolese Government September 1960: Lamumba dismissed as P.M. December 1960: Lamumba arrested 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966

  18. February: Lamumba killed • August: UN forces begin disarming the Katangese military 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966

  19. 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966

  20. Katanga ends Secession 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966

  21. Kasavubu & Tshombe • In a bid to unite the country, President Kasavubu appointed Tshombe (former President of secessionist Katanga) as Prime Minister of the Congo 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966

  22. The Mobutu Coup • Kasavubu & Tshombe ousted in military coup d’etát by General Désiré Mobutu • Mobutu renames the country ‘Zaire’ (1971) • Mobutu declares himself ‘Mobutu Sese Seko’ • Katanga Province re-named ‘Shaba’ • Ruled the Democratic Republic of Congo for three decades 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966

  23. 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966