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Module #11 – Emergency Preparedness

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Module #11 – Emergency Preparedness. Overview. Community and economic development are closely linked with Emergency Management (EM). Once a community is developed, it needs to be maintained. EM is one of the means to that end and is the focus of this presentation.

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  • Community and economic development are closely linked with Emergency Management (EM). Once a community is developed, it needs to be maintained. EM is one of the means to that end and is the focus of this presentation.
  • The approach to EM presented here is the “all hazards” approach or an “action orientation.”
the basics
The Basics:
  • Do No Harm (paraphrased from the Hippocratic Oath)
  • Save Lives
  • Limit Property Damage
  • Aid in Recovery
principles of emergency management
Principles of Emergency Management:
  • EM is a process not an event
  • EM is continuous
  • Nothing is Unimportant in EM
  • A thorough working knowledge and training with the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) is critical at all levels of the EM network.

phases of emergency management
Phases of Emergency Management:
  • Four Phases of EM:

1. Mitigation: Actions taken that prevent an emergency or lessen its effect.

2. Preparedness: Plans/preparation designed to save lives in an emergency.

3. Response: Any actions taken that are apt to save life and property.

4. Recovery: Actions taken to bring back a sense of normalcy to citizens’ lives.

phases continued
Phases (continued)
  • The Master EM Plan must cover all four phases previously mentioned.
  • The four EM phases need to be tied to the goals and objective in your Community Development Plan.
  • Together the Master EM and the Community Development Plans become the Comprehensive Master Development Plan for your community.
other factors to consider
Other Factors to Consider:
  • The Comprehensive Land Use Plan
  • Zoning
  • Subdivision Regulations
  • Building, Fire, and Safety Codes
  • Public Health Regulations
  • If the EM Plan is incorporated into all of these other plans, it makes for a smoother transition into the overall community plan.
community involvement
Community Involvement
  • Potential Problems:
  • Public Apathy: The “not in my backyard” attitude (NIMBY) can kill community development plans and activities.
  • Politics: Encroaching on other peoples’ turf can be detrimental to effective planning (Community Development and EM).
solutions to these problems involving the public the media and elected officials
Solutions to these Problems: Involving the Public, the Media, and Elected Officials
  • Continuous communication with the Public through town hall meetings, articles, and educational activities.
  • Involvement with Government: Most elected officials are realizing that they must pay attention to emergency preparedness or they tempt political suicide.
  • Actively seek funding support for your EM projects. It is important to become well versed in grant writing whereby you seek out the support of federal and state government, private foundations and corporations.
  • Be active, be visible, be involved, and be responsive.

In other Words: Involve all the aforementioned as stakeholders (owners) in your community’s EM Preparedness Plans.

community resources critical systems types of resources
Community Resources & Critical SystemsTypes of Resources
  • Information: Provided by the Public Information Officer.
  • People: EM personnel integrated with community leaders.
  • Money: Constantly be on the lookout for additional revenue sources (Grants, startup money, etc.).
  • Buildings and Land: Look for donations for each of these types of resources.
  • Equipment: Remember, equipment has a life cycle; therefore, plan accordingly.
volunteer activities working with volunteers
Volunteer ActivitiesWorking with Volunteers
  • Finding Volunteers: Religious organizations, nonprofits, and other civic organizations provide a great deal of relief during emergencies.
  • Staging Volunteers: Having a plan of operation that includes when, where, and how to stage volunteers is essential to your plans.
  • Communicating with Volunteers: Your EM plan needs to ensure that all operational personnel providing relief are able to efficiently and effective communicate with one another.
mutual aid agreements maa memoranda of understanding mou
Mutual Aid Agreements (MAA)Memoranda of Understanding (MOU)
  • First, you have to have them so make them effective. Remember, these agreements and statements of understanding are about relationships.
  • MAAs and MUOs sets forth who is going to do what, when, where, how.
  • The agreements provide the details and should allow for flexibility.
  • These agreements should involve cross-training units (like Special Forces) in case one unit fails, another can still perform the mission.
ceo checklist your checklist should include the following items
CEO ChecklistYour Checklist Should Include the Following Items:
  • Immediate Action: When an emergency happens, what are the actions that are taken immediately? Who do you contact?
  • Personal and Personnel: Set up alert notification rosters listing who needs to contact whom. Where do family members of responders go and how are they taken care of during the crisis? Otherwise, you will have severely distracted personnel.
checklist continued
Checklist (continued)
  • Legal: Contact legal advisers and review legal responsibilities.
  • Political: Provide for accountability of public officials. Ensure they have a station from which to operate government.
  • Public Information: It is vital to keep rumors to a minimum; therefore, ensure you have a plan of who will communicate with the public and how. The Public Information Officer (PIO) is critical to success!
planning leadership the plan
Planning & LeadershipThe Plan:
  • Work the plan, yet do not be surprised if the plan changes within the first few minutes of the emergency. This is where flexibility comes into play.
  • Train with the plan, yet add scenarios that cause you to readjust the plan.
  • Plan the exercise and exercise the plan.
According to Luther Gulick (in Shafritz and Hyde 2007, 79-87), the chief executive is responsible for the following:
  • Planning: Purpose is translated into the program.
  • Organizing: All operations into a structural process.
  • Staffing: Recruiting and selecting qualified personnel.
  • Directing: Is the giving of orders and accepting the responsibility.
  • Coordinating: Developing a functional team that is held together by a set of core ideas.
  • Reporting: This requires informing all personnel involved in the process.
  • Budgeting: This requires financial oversight, accountability on the part of government, and the continuous acquisition of resources.

Known as: POSDCORB

emergency management exercises training the basics
Emergency Management ExercisesTraining: The Basics
  • Develop and write the plan,
  • Train with the plan,
  • Critique the Plan,
  • Revise the Plan,
  • Train Again.

Note: This process can overlap.

the format for planning emergency exercises an outline


Situation and Assumptions

Concept of Operations


Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities

Administration and Logistics

Maintenance of Operations

Authorities and References

Finance and Budgeting

Documents and Definitions

The Format for Planning Emergency Exercises: An Outline
example of a three part exercise
Example of a Three-Part Exercise:
  • Tabletop Exercise: The purpose is to review the EM plan, the implementation strategy, and the coordination needed to implement the plan.
  • Functional Exercise: Once familiar with the process, then you must move onto a realistic evaluation of the EOC activation. FEMA wants to test stress factors (type of activity, true constraints, problem complexity, multiple events, etc.) in all operational areas.
  • Full-Scale Exercise: The entire capacity of the Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) will be tested. FEMA requires jurisdictions accepting FEMA funds to conduct a functional exercise in each of three years of a four-year period.
financial management and budgeting who and what are the targets of financial support
Financial Management and BudgetingWho and What are the Targets of Financial Support?
  • Federal Government: The largest pocketbook.
  • State Government: On source an pass through funding.
  • Local Government: Under-funded and overstretched.
  • Grants-in-aid: A more competitive source of revenue.
  • Philanthropic/Foundation Support: Attractive source, yet this areas is becoming more competitive.
  • Charities/Nonprofit Organizations: Probably the most willing, yet the source with the least resources.
legal documents what are the essentials
Legal DocumentsWhat are the Essentials:
  • Liability Insurance: “Murphy’s Law” is rather optimistic when it comes to emergencies. Get insurance.
  • Contracts: Personnel, operations, and equipment require contracts to protect all involved in the EM process.
  • Emergency Declaration: From local ordinances to national declaration, all EM action extends from this item.
local responsibilities
Local Responsibilities:
  • As all politics are local, so is emergency management, until a state or national emergency is declared by the appropriate authorities.
  • Keep in mind that you will have to survive and operate on your own for a time until additional assistance arrives.
  • The local Emergency Operations Center (EOC) is key.
organizing the emergency operations center eoc the organization
Organizing the Emergency Operations Center (EOC)The Organization:
  • DHS, FEMA and other organizations have produced organizational charts, graphs, and designs that will enable you to design your organization to fit your needs and budget.
  • Note: funding can change the makeup of your organization. Communication systems are dated when you take them “out of the box.” Finally, technology is ever changing as are the costs. Organize in such a way that if technology/communications fail, you can still accomplish the mission.
eoc basics
EOC Basics
  • EOCs have a physical location
  • EOCs provide multi-agency coordination
  • EOCs help to form a common operating picture
  • EOC core functions include:

1. Coordination (above)

2. Communications

3. Resource Allocation & Tracking

4. Information Collection

5. Analysis

6. Dissemination

  • Pre-planning & Training cannot be overemphasized
  • Systems like WebEOC can provide a valuable tool for organizing and running an EOC
  • While having your local EOC in order is important, access to equipment in an emergency is paramount. Not all equipment that is needed may be stored and maintained in your own facilities.
  • Where are the things we will need for an emergency?
  • Who can operate this equipment and do we have backup personnel?
  • Cost—what are the costs of operation?
  • Contacts, who are the key points of contact (name and phone numbers of local personnel, other cooperating governments and nongovernmental resources) for the equipment?
*Sample EOC Organizational Chart

EOC Director

EOC Coordinator

Safety Officer


Security Officer

  • Agency Representatives
  • Community Based Organizations

Public Information Officer







Fire & Rescue

Situation Analysis


Time Keeping



Cost Accounting

Law Enforcement

Advance Planning







Health & Welfare

Technical Specialists



Resource Tracking

* Adapted from

equipment continued
Equipment (continued)
  • Chain of Responsibility: you must consider the viability of having a sign in/out roster for the equipment in order to know where the equipment is and who is responsible for it.
  • Upgrades and Repairs: You must maintain a maintenance schedule for all of your equipment and designate personnel who have authority and responsibility for maintaining the equipment.
local response in a state or national disaster declaration
Local Response in a State or National Disaster Declaration
  • Governor or President makes declaration
  • The National Response Framework (NRF), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) & the National Incident Management System (NIMS)
  • State & National coordination & integration
  • Stay informed and trained in the larger response apparatus. You may need it someday!