Soc 319: Sociological Approaches to Social Psychology. Group Conformity (cont’d)/ Group Performance April 9, 2009. D. How do groups react to dissenters?. 1. Group efforts to manage “deviants” Apply pressure to make “deviant” conform Persuasion threats punishments
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Group Conformity (cont’d)/
April 9, 2009
1. Definition. A mode of thinking and decision-making by group members where pressures for unanimity and cohesiveness overwhelm the group members’ motivation to appraise realistically the alternative courses of action (Janis 1972). “Illusion of consensus”
a. Cuban missile crisis
b. Challenger disaster
4. Possible solutions
I. Types of tasks performed by groups
A. Social facilitation effect
1. Early definition: the tendency of people to perform simple tasks better when others are present (Triplett)
2. Current definition: The strengthening of dominant responses, due to the presence of others (Zajonc)
a. Evidence: Presence of other facilitates performance (speed & accuracy on well-practiced tasks, yet hinders performance on less familiar tasks.
3. What does the social facilitation effect occur?
a. Evaluation apprehension
A. Process loss
1. Definition. Actual productivity =
(potential productivity - process loss)
2. Types of process loss
a. Coordination losses
b. Motivation losses.
B. Motivation loss
1. Social loafing
a. Evidence: Latane study
b. Explanations for social loafing
2. Free riding
a. Explanations for free riding
b. The reverse: social compensation
3. Inequity-based motivation losses
a. The sucker effect
C. “Guards” against motivation loss
1. Challenging or appealing task
2. Group members like each other