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Naming

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Naming

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  1. Naming Molecular Compounds & Acids

  2. Molecules • Molecule – two or more atoms covalently bound together • Diatomic molecule – two of the same atom bound together

  3. Diatomic Elements • H, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I or the Magnificent 7 • Have No Fear Of Ice Cold Beverages • These elements exist as diatomic molecules in their most stable state. • For example: • Br  Br2 • I  I2 • N  N2 • Cl  Cl2 • H  H2 • O  O2 • F  F2

  4. Binary Molecular Compounds • Binary covalent compounds contain 2nonmetals • No Polyatomic Ions!!!!! • No Charges!!!!

  5. Naming Binary Covalent Compounds • Before you can name binary covalent compounds, you MUST know the prefixes! • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • Mono • Di • Tri • Tetra • Penta • Hexa • Hepta • Octa • Nona • Deca

  6. Rules for naming Binary Covalent Compoundsex. N2F4 • Name the prefix for the number of atoms of the first element (ex. Di-) • Then name the first element (ex. Dinitrogen) • Name the prefix for the number of atoms of the second element (ex. Dinitrogen tetra-) • Than name the root of the second element with the ending –ide (ex. Dinitrogen tetrafluoride)

  7. Note… • If the 1st prefix is mono….DROP IT! • Ex. CO is carbon monoxide NOT monocarbon monoxide • When the prefix ends in an o or a, and the name of the element begins with a vowel, the o or a is often dropped • EX. CO4 would be carbon tetroxide NOT carbon tetraoxide

  8. Examples • What is the name of N2O4? • N2 di nitrogen • O4  tetra oxide • Since oxide begins with a vowel, we will • drop the a in tetra • Dinitrogen tetroxide

  9. More examples • Name SO2 • S  mono sulfur • But mono is with the 1st element, so it will be dropped  sulfur • O2  dioxide • Sulfur dioxide

  10. More examples • Write the formula for dichlorine monoxide • Dichlorine  Cl2 • Monoxide  O • Cl2O

  11. More examples • Write the formula for disulfur dichloride • Disulfur  S2 • Dichloride  Cl2 • S2Cl2

  12. Acids • Acids can be recognized because the start with H • Examples • HCl • H2SO4 • HI

  13. Acids • Acids are in aqueous solution (aq) • For the purposes of this class, we will assume that if it begins with H, we will name it according to the rules of naming acids

  14. Rule #1 - naming acids • If the anion ends in –ide, the acid will be named… • Hydro (root) – ic acid • Examples • HCl • Hydrochloric acid • HI • Hydroiodic acid • H2S • Hydrosulfuric acid

  15. Rule #2 – naming acids • If you have an H plus an anion ending in –ate, the acid will be named… • (root) – ic acid • Examples • H2SO4 • Sulfuric acid • HNO3 • Nitric acid • H3PO4 • Phosphoric acid

  16. Rule # 3 – naming acids • If you have an H plus an anion ending in –ite, the acid will be named… • (root) – ous acid • Examples • H2SO3 • Sulfurous acid • HNO2 • Nitrous acid • H3PO3 • Phosphorous acid

  17. Writing formulas for acids • When writing formulas for acids you MUST look at the charges of the anion and add as many hydrogens as needed to cancel out the negative charge (because hydrogen is +1) • Example: Phosphoric acid • Phosphate = PO4-3 • So, phosphoric acid = H3PO4

  18. Remember… ate  ic ite - ous

  19. H2SO3 H2CO3 HF Nitrous acid Perchloric acid Iodic acid Sulfurous acid Carbonic acid Hydrofluoric acid HNO2 HClO4 HIO3 More examples

  20. Rules for Writing Formulas • Three sets of rules, ionic, covalent, and acids • To decide which to use, decide what the first substance is. • If is a metal or polyatomic ion use ionic. • If it is a non-metal use covalent. • If it is hydrogen, use acid rules

  21. Hydrates • Some compounds trap water crystals when they form. • These are hydrates. • Both the name and the formula needs to indicate how many water molecules are trapped. • In the name we add the word hydrate with a prefix that tells us how many water molecules.

  22. Hydrates • In the formula you put a dot and then write the number of molecules. • Calcium chloride dihydrate = CaCl2·2H2O • Chromium (III) nitrate hexahydrate = Cr(NO3)3· 6H2O

  23. KClO2 CO2 H2SO4 NH4Br CuCO3 Fe2O3 HClO Potassium chlorite Carbon dioxide Sulfuric acid Ammonium bromide Copper (II) carbonate Iron (III) oxide Hypochlorous acid Mixed examples(remember to figure out what type of compound it is 1st!)

  24. Carbon tetrachloride Phosphorous pentachloride Aluminum oxide Copper (II) nitrate Chlorous acid Hydrophosphoric acid Iron (III) hydroxide CCl4 PCl5 Al2O3 Cu(NO3)2 HClO2 H3P Fe(OH)3 More Mixed Examples