The Bonds of Empire Chapter 4
The Line of English Kings The Stuarts rule led England to want to dominate the world, leading to more royal authority on the colonies Stuart Crest Commonwealth Flag
The Line of English Kings (James II) After Charles II revokes the charter of Massachusetts, James II went a bit further and established the Dominion of New England to control their actions and deny them rights
The Glorious Revolution James II is Catholic and his people are mostly Protestant so he is removed from power and replaced by William and Mary
The French and the Mississippi King William and Queen Anne’s wars made England even more connected with the colonies as conflicts between them and France spilled over to the American front
Mercantilist Empires The powerful British navy was able to use their navy to establish the Navigation Acts to help protect the British economy and tie it to the colonies. What was the economic impact of mercantilism on the colonies?
Population Growth and Diversity • “Why should Pennsylvania, founded by the English, become a colony of aliens, who will shortly be so numerous as to Germanize us instead of Anglicanizing them, and will never adopt a language or customs any more than they can acquire our complexion” • Benjamin Franklin • What was the social impact of the diverse population in the colonies?
Rural v. Urban Colonial Life What were the differences in social and economic lifestyles of the poor rural farmer and the urban colonial elites?
Oglethorpe and Georgia The population in Georgia increases as the British realize the need to populate territories before other Europeans or Native Americans claim the land
Enlightenment and Awakening What affect did the Enlightenment and the Great Awakening have on social and political ideas in the colonies?
Independence and Nationhood Looking at the Revolutionary War and its Aftermath Chapter 5
French and Indian War Chapter 5.1
The Road to Revolution Chapter 5
Early Tensions • Writs of Assistance • George III Becomes King • Proclamation of 1763 Why were the British interested in creating these tensions? How did the colonists react to the tensions?
Sugar Act • The Sugar act imposed a tax on sugar • The act also imposed laws that attempted to stop smuggling and illegal trading with other nations • The British set up courts and tried colonists who broke these laws (why?) • Despite less crime the colonial economy worsened, hurting British revenue, and they eventually repealed the tax
The Stamp Act George Grenville
The Stamp Act Resistance • The colonists resisted due to “no taxation without representation” Dissenting groups were: • House of Burgesses • Sons of Liberty • John Peter Zenger
Declaratory Act • Gives Britain the right to tax colonies (what was the purpose for passing this?) Resistance to Act: • Enlightenment Resistance (economic) • Great Awakening Resistance (moral)
Townshend’s Acts • Quartering Act (why were soldiers still there?) • Townshend Acts (what was their purpose?) Resistance against the Acts: • John Dickinson – “Letters From a Farmer” • Samuel Adams – “Circular Letter” What did these two letters ask for?
Parliament and the Colonists • Colonists created a nonimportation agreement, so Parliament: • Lord North (prime minister) eliminates taxes except for tea tax • British Racketeering (what is the effect?) • John Wilkes • Troops sent to Boston
Colonists Response After the taxes continued colonists: • Nonconsumption Agreement on tea • Sons and Daughters of Liberty protests • Boston Massacre (propaganda?) • Committees of Correspondence • Backcountry Rulebreakers
Tea Act turns to Intolerable Acts • Tea Act allows East India Trading Company to send tea at lower prices (so why are colonists angry?) • Boston Tea Party • Intolerable Acts
African-American “Liberty” • British attempted to claim the slaves would be freed if they supported Britain (what reaction did colonists have to this?) • Lord Dunmore’s slave army in Virginia
First Continental Congress and Response • Suffolk Resolves • Declaration of Rights sent to George III British Responded with: • Troops (Thomas Gage) • Seizing weapons at Lexington and Concord (Paul Revere) • Olive Branch Petition Sent by 2ndCongress
What were the major reasons why the US decided to break away from the British rule? Use one of these quotes to explain your answer.*THIS IS EXTRA CREDIT DUE FRIDAY* “And We do further strictly enjoin and require all Persons whatever, who have either wilfully or inadvertently seated themselves upon any Lands within the Countries above described, or upon any other Lands, which, not having been ceded to, or purchased by Us, are still reserved to the said Indians as aforesaid, forthwith to remove themselves from such Settlements.” - Proclamation of 1763 “But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security.” - Declaration of Independence, 1776
The Revolutionary War Loyalists v. Patriots • Who were they? • Where did they have support? What was the situation for the Native Americans?
Advantages and Disadvantages for Britain • Advantages • # of people • Navy and army strength • More experience • Disadvantages • Recruiting Soldiers (why?) • Distance (3,000 miles) • Financial Strain • French, Spanish • Public Opinion
The War in the North • Battles of New York (Washington) • Battle of Saratoga (Gates v. Burgoyne) • Battle of Philadelphia (Washington)
The Western War • Battle for which side would control the West (who is fighting?) • American generals defeat the Native Americans and set up future expansion
The Southern War • British take Charles Town (Charleston) and Carolinas (Cornwallis v. Greene) • Cornwallis establishes base in Yorktown and is defeated in last battle of revolution (Battle of Yorktown) • Who eventually made the difference in the war?
Treaty of Paris (1783) • Conditions were: • British had to remove all troops • Mississippi River is new western boundary of new United States • Loyalists would be allow to go to Canada or Britain Which one of these did the British not follow through on?
The Treaty of Paris The British refused to pose for the painting
Social Change in the Revolution • Equality Issues • Rich v. Poor (what were the changes?) • The “natural aristocracy” helps common people gain respect Minority Issues • Women (changes?) • Blacks (changes?) • Native Americans (changes?)
Creating a New Nation • In groups of 3 (from your own ideas): • Political – As an architect create drawings of new government buildings and explain what goes on in each building • Given the past social problems, list 10 new social commandments that should be followed to make the nation better • Economic – Create a pamphlet that describes 3 economic programs that will be offered by the government
Principles of State Government • Voting Principles (who could vote?) • Election Principles (how often and who?) • Rights of People (what rights are allowed?) • Limited Government (how is the government set up?)
Articles of Confederation • What is the setup? • What powers did it have? • What was the result of this government?
Articles Advancements and Problems • Despite problems, the Articles: • Gained land through treaties (but at a cost?) • Land Ordinance and Northwest Ordinance (how does it divide land?) What were the issues with British and Spanish in the West?