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Biomass Productivity. Gross primary productivity (GPP) rate at which producers in an ecosystem convert sun into food Net primary productivity (NPP)= GPP - Respiration NPP and populations NPP limits the number of consumers that can live on earth. Differences between GPP and NPP. Sun.

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biomass productivity
Biomass Productivity
  • Gross primary productivity (GPP)rate at which producers in an ecosystem convert sun into food
  • Net primary productivity (NPP)= GPP - Respiration
  • NPP and populationsNPP limits the number of consumers that can live on earth
differences between gpp and npp
Differences between GPP and NPP

Sun

Photosynthesis

Energy lost and

unavailable to

consumers

Respiration

Gross primary

production

Net primary

production

(energy

available to

consumers)

Growth and reproduction

net primary productivity in major life zones and ecosystems
Net Primary Productivity in Major Life Zones and Ecosystems

Terrestrial Ecosystems

Swamps and marshes

Tropical rain forest

Temperate forest

Northern coniferous forest

(taiga)

Savanna

Agricultural land

Woodland and shrubland

Temperate grassland

Tundra (arctic and alpine)

Desert scrub

Extreme desert

Aquatic Ecosystems

Estuaries

Lakes and streams

Continental shelf

Open ocean

800 1,600 2,400 3,200 4,000 4,800 5,600 6,400 7,200 8,000 8,800 9,600

Average net primary productivity (kcal/m2/yr)

Fig. 3-11, p. 48

matter cycling in ecosystems biogeochemical cycles
Matter Cycling in Ecosystems: Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Nutrient (biogeochemical) cycles
  • Hydrologic (water) cycle
  • Carbon cycle
  • Nitrogen cycle
  • Phosphorus cycle
  • Sulfur cycle
simplified hydrologic water cycle
Simplified Hydrologic (Water) Cycle

Condensation

Rain clouds

Transpiration

Evaporation

Precipitation

to land

Transpiration

from plants

Precipitation

Precipitation

Evaporation

From

ocean

Evaporation

From

ocean

Surface runoff (rapid)

Precipitationto ocean

Rapid

Surface runoff (rapid)

Infiltration and

percolation

Groundwater movement (slow)

Ocean storage

human interventions in the hydrologic cycle
Human Interventions in the Hydrologic Cycle
  • Large withdraw of surface and ground waters
  • Clearing vegetation / wetland destruction -  runoff,  infiltration,  groundwater recharge,  flood risk,  soil erosion & landslides
  • Pollution - addition of nutrients
the carbon cycle marine
The Carbon Cycle (Marine)

Diffusion between

atmosphere and ocean

Combustion of fossil fuels

Carbon dioxide

dissolved in

ocean water

aerobic respiration

photosynthesis

Marine food webs

Producers, consumers,

decomposers, detritivores

incorporation into sediments

uplifting over geologic time

death, sedimentation

sedimentation

Marine sediments, including

formations with fossil fuels

the carbon cycle terrestrial
The Carbon Cycle (Terrestrial)

Atmosphere

(most carbon is in carbon dioxide)

Combustion

of fossil

fuels

volcanic action

combustion of wood (for clearing land; or fuel)

aerobic respiration

photosynthesis

Terrestrial

rocks

deforestaion

Land food webs

Producers, consumers,

decomposers, detritivores

weathering

Soil water

(dissolved carbon)

Peat,

fossil fuels

death, burial, compaction over geologic time

leaching, runoff

human interferences in the global carbon cycle

High

projection

Low

projection

Human Interferences in the Global Carbon Cycle

Clearing Vegetation

Burning Fossil Fuels

potential consequences?

Fig. 3-26, p. 56

the nitrogen cycle

Gaseous Nitrogen (N2)

in Atmosphere

Nitrogen

Fixation

by industry

for agriculture

Food Webs

on Land

uptake by

autotrophs

uptake by

autotrophs

excretion, death,

decomposition

Fertilizers

Nitrogen Fixation

bacteria convert N2 to

ammonia (NH3); this

dissolves to form

ammonium (NH4+)

Denitrification

by bacteria

NO3–

in Soil

Nitrogenous Wastes,

Remains in Soil

Ammonification

bacteria, fungi convert the

residues to NH3; this

dissolves to form NH4+

2. Nitrification

bacteria convert NO2–

to nitrate (NO3–)

NH3, NH4+

in Soil

1. Nitrification

bacteria convert NH4+

to nitrite (NO2–)

NO2–

in Soil

loss by

leaching

loss by

leaching

The Nitrogen Cycle
human interferences in the global nitrogen cycle
Human Interferences in the Global Nitrogen Cycle

Add nitric oxide (NO) to atmosphere - can form acid rain

Add nitrous oxide N2O to atmosphere via anaerobic decomposition & inorganic fertilizers - greenhouse gas

Nitrate in inorganic fertilizers can leach thru soil & contaminate groundwater

Release large quantities of N into troposphere via habitat destruction

Upset aquatic ecosystems from excess nitrates in ag. runoff & sewage- eutrophication

the phosphorus cycle
The Phosphorus Cycle

mining

Fertilizer

Guano

excretion

agriculture

uptake by

autotrophs

uptake by

autotrophs

Land

Food

Webs

Dissolved

in Soil Water,

Lakes, Rivers

leaching, runoff

Dissolved

in Ocean

Water

Marine Food Webs

death,

decomposition

weathering

weathering

settling out

sedimentation

uplifting over

geologic time

Rocks

Marine Sediments

human interventions in the phosphorus cycle
Human Interventions in the Phosphorus Cycle

Mining of phosphate rock

Clearing tropical forests reduces available phosphate in tropical soils

Phosphates from runoff of animal wastes, sewage & fertilizers disrupts aquatic ecosystems - eutrophication“Since 1900, human activities have increased the natural rate of phosphorous release to environment by about 3.7 fold”

the sulfur cycle
The Sulfur Cycle

Water

Ammonia

Acidic fog and precipitation

Sulfur trioxide

Sulfuric acid

Ammonium sulfate

Oxygen

Hydrogen sulfide

Sulfur dioxide

Plants

Volcano

Dimethyl sulfide

Animals

Industries

Ocean

Sulfate salts

Metallic

Sulfide

deposits

Decaying matter

Sulfur

Hydrogen sulfide

how do ecologists learn about ecosystems
How Do Ecologists Learn about Ecosystems?
  • Field research
  • Remote sensing
  • Geographic information system (GIS)
  • Laboratory research
  • Systems analysis
geographic information system gis
Geographic Information System (GIS)

Critical nesting site locations

USDA

Forest Service

USDA Forest Service

Private

owner 1

Private owner 2

Topography

Forest

Habitat type

Wetland Lake

Grassland

Real world

Fig. 3-31, p. 61