Motive Units Psychodynamic Theory
Motive Unit Theories • Carrot theories • Incentives pull (motivate) behavior towards pleasure • Pitchfork theories (stick) • Punishments push (motivate) behavior away from pain • Tension produce drive states to reduce tension • Low glucose causes feeling of hunger -> eating behavior • Freud’s theory is a ‘push’ theory
Sigmund Freud • Human is energy system • Principle of energy conservation • Energy = tension • Goal of behavior is tension reduction (pleasure) • Behavior driven by sexual & aggressive instincts • Biological imperatives seeking expression (unconscious) • Conflicts between instincts & society central
Sigmund Freud • Clinical, idiographic approach to science • Free-association • Dream interpretation • Projective tests Original couch used by Freud in Vienna, displayed in the Freud Museum in London
Rational, planful, mediating dimension of personality Information in your immediate awareness Information which can easily be made conscious Moralistic, judgmental, perfectionist dimension of personality Thoughts, feelings, urges, and other information that is difficult to bring to conscious awareness Irrational, illogical, impulsive dimension of personality Psychodynamic Structural Units Conscious Ego Superego Preconscious Unconscious Id
Unconscious • Motivation key • Satisfy instincts • Remain unaware of instincts • Instincts can be: • Blocked, displaced, combined • Expressed symbolically • Dreams, accidents, slips of the tongue (parapraxes)
Ego, Id and Superego • Components in constant conflict • Ego tries to satisfy Id, SE & reality • Weak or strong ego
Personality Development • All have sexual & aggressive instincts • Individual differences due to nature of early environment (traumatic experiences, conflicts) • Differences in methods/success satisfying instincts • Instinct gratification changes during childhood • Conflict between society/parents & instincts • Resolution -> adult personality (by age 5) • Oral...Anal...Phallic…(latency) Genital
Personality Development • Fixation/problems determines adult traits • Oral: Optimistic & gullible (E) v. hostile (I) • Anal: Fastidious & orderly (C) v. messy • Phallic: Flirty & promiscuous v. chaste • Personality determined by age 5 • Conflicts, neurosis, traumas carry-on during adult life & determines behavior • Individual differences in defense mechanisms
Anxiety • Signal of threat or danger to person (ego) • Desire becoming conscious or not expressed • Conflict unresolved • Activates unconscious defenses
Activity 4: Defense Mechanisms • Groups of 4-5 will write a 1 minute skit illustrating 1 defense mechanism • Each skit must include: • A setting (e.g., friends at a movie, club, library) • > 3 named characters (with at least 2 spoken lines each) • clear demonstrations of the defense mechanism through dialogue and/or behavior of characters • Each group will perform their skit for the class who will guess which mechanism is being illustrated • PLEASE TURN YOUR SKIT IN AT THE END OF CLASS!
Defense mechanisms: Projection Rationalization Denial Reaction formation Sublimation Isolation Undoing To do in order: Pick mechanism Read & understand mechanism Pick setting & characters Write dialogue for mechanism Pick performers Activity 4: Defense Mechanisms
Reaction Paper 4: Freud • What is your reaction to Freud’s ideas? Does his view of human nature & personality development ring true for you? What aspect of his theory do you particularly agree/disagree with? Explain.
Evidence of Defense Mechanisms • Yes but not psychoanalytical defense model • Social Psychology • Self-serving bias • Accept positive reject negative feedback • Downward social comparison • Repressors • High on social desirability, low on anxiety • Report calm but physiologically aroused
Evidence of Defense Mechanisms: Denial • Terror Management Theory: Unconsciously defend against fear of death (Pyzczynski et al., 2000) • Increases belief in cultural world view • Adams et al. (1996) • Homophobic men physiologically aroused to homoerotic material • Subjective arousal = non-homophobic men
Adams et al. (1996) Heterosexual video Homosexual video Blocked line = non-homophobic Solid line = homophobic Lesbian video
Defense & Denial Healthy? • May be a matter of degree... • YES • Positive illusions of self-enhancement, control & optimism associated w/ mental & physical health (Taylor et al., 2000) • Depression, adjustment, immune function, longevity
Defense & Denial Healthy? • NO! • Long-term distortion of reality unhealthy • Suppression of emotion increases ANS (Gross & Levenson, 1997) • Emotional disclosure of trauma enhances mental & physical health (Hemenover, 2003; Pennebaker, 2000)
Cognitive Unconscious • Freud’s view of unconscious: • Unconscious hot, affective, irrational & seething • Contemporary: Cold, logical & cognitive • Cognitive processes occur outside of awareness • Implicit memory, perception,, emotion, motivation & social behavior • Not necessarily affective or motivational • Behaviors, thoughts become automatic & part of unconscious (automaticity)
Cognitive Unconscious • Implicit Social Cognition • Unconscious attitudes, beliefs, feelings, behaviors • Activated & progress unconsciously, automatically • Bargh: Most day to day behavior (even goal seeking) proceeds in this way • Bargh & Pietromonaco (1982): Hostile words • Krosnick et al. (1992): PA NA pictures • Bargh et al. (1996): Primed stereotypes
Activity 5: Cognitive Unconscious • Groups of 3-5 • Describe 1 similarity and at least 2 differences between the cognitive unconscious and Freud’s model of the unconscious (Pervin p. 207-8; Pervin & John, p. 79) • Based on this is integration of these two models possible? Explain. • PLEASE TURN THESE IN AFTER CLASS!
Contributions Early experiences Unconscious mind Rich observations Limitations Weak science Poor definitions Low precision in prediction Untestable & unfalsifiable hypotheses Tension model problematic Autobiographical Freud was ‘close’ w/ mom Victorian era suppressed sex Psychodynamic Theory: Contributions & Limitations
Critique of the Motive Unit • Origin of motives? • Universal motives & taxonomy? • Operationalization of motives? • Process of motives?