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Electronic devices and circuits . UNIT – I PN- DIODE. SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE. Theory of p-n junction p-n junction as diode p-n diode currents Volt-amp characteristics Diode resistance Temperature effect of p-n junction Transition and diffusion capacitance of p-n diode

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Electronic devices and circuits


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    1. Electronic devices and circuits UNIT – I PN- DIODE

    2. SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE • Theory of p-n junction • p-n junction as diode • p-n diode currents • Volt-amp characteristics • Diode resistance • Temperature effect of p-n junction • Transition and diffusion capacitance of p-n diode • Diode switching times

    3. + + Theory of p-n junction • When a p-type semiconductor material is suitably joined to n-type semiconductor the contact surface is called a p-n junction. • P N Depletion region

    4. p-n junction as diode • The p-n junction is also called as semiconductor diode . • The left side material is a p-type semiconductor having –ve acceptor ions and +vely charged holes. The right side material is n-type semiconductor having +ve donor ions and free electrons

    5. p-n junction as diode • Suppose the two pieces are suitably treated to form pn junction, then there is a tendency for the free electrons from n-type to diffuse over to the p-side and holes from p-type to the n-side . This process is called diffusion • The left side material is a p-type semiconductor having –ve acceptor ions and +vely charged holes. The right side material is n-type semiconductor having +ve donor ions and free electrons.

    6. p-n junction as diode • As the free electrons move across the junction from n-type to p-type, +ve donor ions are uncovered. Hence a +ve charge is built on the n-side of the junction. At the same time, the free electrons cross the junction and uncover the –ve acceptor ions by filling in the holes. Therefore a net –ve charge is established on p-side of the junction.

    7. p-n junction as diode • When a sufficient number of donor and acceptor ions is uncovered further diffusion is prevented. • Thus a barrier is set up against further movement of charge carriers. This is called potential barrier or junction barrier Vo. The potential barrier is of the order of 0.1 to 0.3V. • Note: outside this barrier on each side of the junction, the material is still neutral. Only inside the barrier, there is a +ve charge on n-side and –ve charge on p-side. This region is called depletion layer.

    8. p-n diode currents • Diode current equation • The current in a diode is given by the diode current equation • I = I0 ( e V/ηVT –1) Where, I------ diode current • I0------ reverse saturation current • V------ diode voltage • η------- semiconductor constant • =1 for Ge, 2 for Si. • VT------ Voltage equivalent of temperature= T/11,600 (Temperature T is in Kelvin) • Note----- If the temperature is given in 0C then it can be converted to Kelvin by the help of following relation, 0C+273 = K

    9. Volt-amp characteristics A R V diode V IF(mA) Break over Voltage VF VR Knee voltage ) IR(μA

    10. Volt-amp characteristics • The supply voltage V is a regulated power supply, the diode is forward biased in the circuit shown. The resistor R is a current limiting resistor. The voltage across the diode is measured with the help of voltmeter and the current is recorded using an ammeter. • By varying the supply voltage different sets of voltage and currents are obtained. By plotting these values on a graph, the forward characteristics can be obtained. It can be noted from the graph the current remains zero till the diode voltage attains the barrier potential. • For silicon diode, the barrier potential is 0.7 V and for Germanium diode, it is 0.3 V. The barrier potential is also called as knee voltage or cur-in voltage.

    11. Diode equivalent circuit • It is generally profitable to replace a device or system by its equivalent circuit. Once the device is replaced by its equivalent circuit, the resulting network can be solved by traditional circuit analysis technique. VF switch rf Vo VF

    12. Diode resistance • Static Resistance • Forward Resistance Rf • Reverse Resistance Rr • Dynamic Resistance • Forward Resistance rf • Reverse Resistance rr

    13. Temperature effect of p-n junction • The current in a diode is given by the diode current equation • I = I0( e V/ηVT –1) • Where, I------ diode current • I0------ reverse saturation current • V------ diode voltage • η------- semiconductor constant • =1 for Ge, 2 for Si. • VT------ Voltage equivalent of temperature= T/11,600 (Temperature T is in Kelvin) • Note----- If the temperature is given in 0C then it can be converted to Kelvin by the help of following relation, 0C+273 = K

    14. HALFWAVE RECTIFIER

    15. HALFWAVE RECTIFIER • The primary of the transformer is connected to ac supply. This induces an ac voltage across the secondary of the transformer. • During the positive half cycle of the input voltage the polarity of the voltage across the secondary forward biases the diode. As a result a current IL flows through the load resistor, RL. The forward biased diode offers a very low resistance and hence the voltage

    16. HALFWAVE RECTIFIER • Drop across it is very small. Thus the voltage appearing across the load is practically the same as the input voltage at every instant. • During the negative half cycle of the input voltage the polarity of the secondary voltage gets reversed. As a result, the diode is reverse biased. • Practically no current flows through the circuit and almost no voltage is developed across the resistor. All input voltage appears across the diode itself.

    17. HALFWAVE RECTIFIER • Hence we conclude that when the input voltage is going through its positive half cycle, output voltage is almost the same as the input voltage and during the negative half cycle no voltage is available across the load. • This explains the unidirectional pulsating dc waveform obtained as output. The process of removing one half the input signal to establish a dc level is aptly called half wave rectification.

    18. HALFWAVE RECTIFIER Peak Inverse Voltage • When the input voltage reaches its maximum value Vm during the negative half cycle the voltage across the diode is also maximum. This maximum voltage is known as the peak inverse voltage. Thus for a half wave rectifier Let Vi be the voltage to the primary of the transformer. Vi is given by where Vr is the cut-in voltage of the diode.

    19. Half wave waveform

    20. HALFWAVE RECTIFIER Ripple Factor • Ripple factor is defined as the ratio of rms value of ac component to the dc component in the output. Ripple factor

    21. HALFWAVE RECTIFIER The ripple is

    22. HALFWAVE RECTIFIER Vav the average or the dc content of the voltage across the load is given by

    23. HALFWAVE RECTIFIER RMS voltage at the load resistance can be calculated as

    24. HALFWAVE RECTIFIER Ripple Factor

    25. HALFWAVE RECTIFIER Efficiency Efficiency, is the ratio of the dc output power to ac input power

    26. Full Wave Bridge Rectifier

    27. The waveform of fullwave rectifier is

    28. Zener Diode • Zener Diode : Works in the break down region when subjected to reverse bias. • Large variation in current. Voltage almost constant. • Used for voltage regulation. Upper limit of current depends on the power dissipation rating of the device.

    29. Zener Diode Zener diode

    30. Light Emitting Diode Light emitting diodes (LEDs) • The Light Emitting Diode (LED) is a common light source used in electronic circuits. • LED is a semiconductor diode that emits light when current passes through it.

    31. The circuit symbol is of light emmitting Diode is

    32. The characteristics of the LED are similar to other semiconductor diodes except the operating • voltage is higher. • A typical LED has an operating voltage of 2.0V and a maximum current of 30mA.

    33. When the LED is to be operated from a circuit voltage supply, a resistor will be required in • series with the LED to ensure the correct current and voltage for the LED. • Consider an LED operating from a +5V power supply and has 20mA flowing through it ….. • the value for the resistor (R) will be 150W.

    34. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - They are used for display of numeric and alphanumeric character in dot matrix and segmental display.

    35. What is a Liquid Crystal? Liquid Crystal – a stable phase of matter characterized by anisotropic properties without the existence of a 3-dimensional crystal lattice – generally lying between the solid and isotropic (“liquid”) phase.

    36. Nematic Smectic There are 2 basic phases

    37. Liquid Crystal Model

    38. Series voltage regulator In a voltage regulator circuit , if the control elements are connected in series with load it is called series voltage regulator .

    39. Series voltage regulator

    40. Zener diode is a diode that block current until a specified voltage is applied. Remember also that the applied voltage is called the breakdown, or Zener voltage. Zener diodes are available with different Zener voltages. When the Zener voltage is reached, the Zener diode conducts from its anode to its cathode (with the direction of the arrow). • In this voltage regulator, Q1 has a constant voltage applied to its base.

    41. This voltage is often called the reference voltage. As changes in the circuit output voltage occur, they are sensed at the emitter of Q1 producing a corresponding change in the forward bias of the transistor. In other words, Q1 compensates by increasing or decreasing its resistance in order to change the circuit voltage division.

    42. V-I Characteristics of Zener Diode

    43. V-I Characteristics of Zener Diode • Zener diodes are manufactured to have a very low reverse bias breakdown voltage • Since the breakdown at the zener voltage is so sharp, these devices are often used in voltage regulators to provide precise voltage references. The actual zener voltage is device dependent. For example, you can buy a 6V zener diode.

    44. THANK U