Assistance, protection and integration in Sweden Non-EU victims of THB Trafficking Along the Migration Route 27 November, 2018 Ninna Mörner
Many in migration at risk: Large flow: In 2015 162 000 people applied for asylum in Sweden. 70 000 were minors and of those 35 000 were unaccompanied minors. Further groups at risk; undocumented, denied asylum, just turning 18 years old… CHALLENGES: Identification in an emergency situation. Growing groups at risk.
Numbers for 2017: The Migration Authority identified 440 cases. 19 (of 169) cases dealt with by authorities and, 3 (of 18) cases in the Return Programme concerned VoTs among non-EU-migrants. The civil society supported 42 (of 86) VoTs among non-EU-migrants. CHALLENGE: Identification does not lead to referral. VoTs among non-EU-migrants are often excluded from the NRM. Civil society may fill in.
Many challenges for non-EU-victims in Sweden: Identification may lead to deportation. No unconditionally reflection period de-linked the criminal proceeding. High threshold for victim status, a report to the police is required. Hard to obtain a legal status in the country, even if participate in criminal proceedings. Integration measures are seldom trauma-sensitive.
Cooperation is a key ”Geographic lottery”; large differences in capacity to deal with cases among the 290 different municipalities in Sweden. GOOD PRACTICE 1: Regional coordinators can refer cases and support the actors involved on all levels. Link cases to the National Multi-Agency Team (NMT). GOOD PRACTICE 2: Local multi-agency network of Helsingborg coorporate and develop routines. GOOD PRACTICE 3: The Swedish Civil Society cooperate with each other, and can provide a range of support from identification to integration.
Challenge: the legal status Parallell processes: Human trafficking is no ground for asylum. Victims that participate in criminal proceedings are not offered permanent residence to stay, only temporay during trial. GOOD PRACTICE 1: Skilled lawyers may improve the chances for being granted asylum on humanitarian grounds. Safe Haven is one project that offers perspectives on rights, legal advices and guidance. GOOD PRACTICE 2: Possibilities to change track and go for work permit. NGOs may help VoTs to prepare, apply and find work. Sometimes also construct employment in cooperation with companies like ABIS.
Challenge:Access to assistance and protection GOOD PRACTICES: The civil society can offer short and long-term help through the national support programme (NSP), and/or by single NGOs: Assistance and protection is given de-linked from the criminal proceedings - no matter where the exploitation have taken place; in home-country, on the route and/or in Sweden. Assistance can be provided tailored after the victim’s need, capacity and in accordance with international rights - as long as there are resources.
Trauma-sensitive measures The offered integration initiatives for accommodation, work, training, language lessons, education etc. are not designed for vulnerable groups like victims of trafficking. Need alternatives. GOOD PRACTICE 1:NSP, include 45 days of empowerment-work, for VoTs and their children. GOOD PRACTICE 2: IMT, Fund for covering direct costs for victims and their children GOOD PRACTICE 3: Salvation Army pilot offers accommodation, training, childcare and education under one roof. GOOD PRACTICE 4: Exit programme by Talita, one year individually designed for female victims.
Long-term help Takes time to build trust and comfort. Need information to form alternative and realistic future plans. Protection of the victims and their families in home-countries (even after trial or if granted asylum). Suitable accommodations, also after leaving the shelter. Occupation and training on an early stage to prepare for a safe and independent life. Working opportunities adjusted to the VoTs ability and needs. Cultural and social activities to promote inclusion. GOOD PRACTICE 1: Civil society runs empowerment workshops, and exit programmes. Try to follow up cases and outcome. There is a transnational network for holistic help. GOOD PRACTICE: 2 Trade union for undocumented workers. Can promote their rights.
From victim to survivor THB is a violation of human rights. Victims of human trafficking has suffered a loss of dignity and freedom. Re-trafficking has to be avoided. To restore (or build up) the VoT’s capacity to live independently and safe demands that one take into account the gender dimension, apply a holistic perspective and include the victim’s family, and acknowledge the need of long-term existential and emotional support for the harm and damaged the VoT has experienced. This is why it is not enough to offer the same set of integration tools that is given any other group.
Reflection period should be granted to all potential VoTs identified in Sweden. • Permanent residence permit should be offered to VoTs that have participated in the criminal proceedings. • Long-term accommodation and work should be provided to VoTs, to follow up the short-term protection and assistance. This needs resources and coordination. • Trauma-sensitive integration includes access to social and cultural meaningful acitivites. Recommendations
Thank you! Ninna Mörner Swedish Platform Civil Society Against Human Trafficking www.manniskohandel.se email@example.com Also affilitated to: Centre for Baltic and East European Studies, Södertörn University