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Integrated Pest Management. Greenhouse Management. Objectives. Define terms associated with integrated pest management. Differentiate between biological, cultural/physical control, and chemical pest management practices. List the proper equipment and clothing to use when applying chemicals.

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integrated pest management

Integrated Pest Management

Greenhouse Management

objectives
Objectives
  • Define terms associated with integrated pest management.
  • Differentiate between biological, cultural/physical control, and chemical pest management practices.
  • List the proper equipment and clothing to use when applying chemicals.
  • Explain the importance of pesticide label information.
terms
Terms
  • LD factor
  • Miticide
  • Nematocide
  • Pest
  • Pesticide
  • Toxicity
  • Biological control
  • Chemical control
  • Cultural control
  • Fungicide
  • Herbicide
  • Insecticide
  • Integrated pest management
what is a pest
What is a pest?
  • Living organism that can cause injury or loss.
  • Types:
    • Insects
    • Disease
    • Weeds
    • Mites
    • Nematodes
    • Parasites
    • Animals
effects on plants and economic losses
Effects on Plants and Economic Losses
  • Pest damage- 1/3 the total crop production potential
  • Methods are available to minimize or eliminate losses that pests cause.
  • Economic injury level
  • Economic threshold
economic injury level
Economic Injury Level
  • The point at which the cost of pest control equals the revenue loss caused by a pest
  • Determined by estimatin the potential yield loss, the value of the crop, and the cost of treatment
  • Clearly defines how much damage can be tolerated.
economic threshold
Economic Threshold
  • Number of insects per plant or the amount of damage to the plant that economically justifies the use of control measures
  • If a control is applied when a pest population reaches the economic threshold, the population will be suppressed before it reaches the economic injury level.
integrated pest management ipm
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  • An ecologically based approach to controlling plant pests
  • Organized program in which the best management methods available are used to keep pest populations below the economic injury level.
slide9
IPM
  • Pest-control strategy that relies on multiple control practices
  • Establishes the amount of damage that will be tolerated before control actions are taken.
keys to successful ipm
Keys to Successful IPM
  • Use of a scout (either the grower or a hired individual) who regularly monitors pest populations and crop conditions
    • Collect data about which pests are causing damage, stage of life, whether the population is increasing or decreasing
keys to successful ipm1
Keys to Successful IPM
  • Knowing how to identify key pests and their biological characteristics is important.
    • Weakest link must be found.
    • Key pest- one that occurs on a regular basis for a given crop.
keys to successful ipm2
Keys to Successful IPM
  • An understanding of the biology of the crop and its ecosystem
  • Ecosystem of the crop consists of the biotic and abiotic influences in the living environment.
    • Biotic- living organisms
    • Abiotic- nonliving factors
benefits
Benefits
  • Help sustain the ability of the earth to meet the needs of an increasing human population.
  • Benefits agriculture and the environment.
benefits to agriculture industry
Benefits to Agriculture Industry
  • Reduced pesticide costs
  • Reduced application costs
  • Less pesticide resistance
benefits to environment
Benefits to Environment
  • Reduced contamination
  • Fewer residues on food
  • Improved human health
methods of control
Methods of Control
  • Biological
  • Chemical
  • Cultural
  • Mechanical
  • Genetic
biological control
Biological Control
  • Use of living organisms to reduce pest populations
  • Beneficial organisms are natural enemies of pests.
  • Parasites, predators, and pathogens are all used as biological controls.
chemical control
Chemical Control
  • Use of pesticides to reduce pest populations
  • Pesticide resistance- the ability of an organism to tolerate a lethal level of a pesticide
  • Pest resurgence- refers to a pest’s ability to repopulate after control measures have been eliminated or reduced.
cultural control
Cultural Control
  • Used to make the crop environment unsuitable for pests to feed, live, or reproduce
  • Also used to improve crop health
  • Examples: soil tillage, crop rotation, adjustment of harvest or planting dates, irrigation schemes, variety selection, clean culture, and trap crops
mechanical control
Mechanical Control
  • Used to physically remove or exclude pests
  • Includes hand destruction and the use of screens and traps
  • Federal and state governments have created laws that prevent the entry or spread of known pests into uninfested areas (regulatory control)
genetic control
Genetic Control
  • Use of genetically engineered organisms to fight pests
  • Plant breeders are constantly working to develop varieties and hybrids that are resistant to or tolerant of pests.
major classifications of pesticides
Major Classifications of Pesticides
  • Pesticide- materials used to control pests
    • Insecticide
    • Miticides
    • Fungicides
    • Herbicides
    • Rodenticides
    • Nematocides
    • Molluscicides
pesticide safety
Pesticide Safety
  • Pesticide can enter the body through four main routes:
    • Oral exposure
    • Dermal exposure
    • Inhalation exposure
    • Eye exposure
pesticide safety1
Pesticide Safety
  • Toxicity- degree of poison in a material
  • Amount of active ingredients in a material and the chemical nature of the poison determine the toxicity.
toxicity
Toxicity
  • Method used to measure toxicity differs between types of exposure
  • LD factor- lethal dose; amount necessary to cause death
    • used to measure oral and dermal toxicity
    • Lower LD= more toxicity
  • Lethal Concentration (LC)
    • Used to measure inhalation toxicity
    • Lower LC= more poisonous pesticide
proper equipment to use when applying pesticides
Proper Equipment to Use When Applying Pesticides
  • Respirator
  • Goggles
  • Rubber gloves
  • Rubber boots
  • Long sleeved shirt
  • Overalls/apron
purpose of pesticide label
Purpose of Pesticide Label
  • Provides information about the active ingredient
    • Active ingredient kills the pest.
  • Front panel provides only basic information
    • Classification (general or restricted use)
    • Brand name
    • Formulation
    • Common name
    • Ingredients
    • Signal words
    • Precautionary statements
    • Establishment number
pesticide labels1
Pesticide Labels
  • Side and back panels provide more detailed information.
    • Hazardous materials warning labels
    • Directions for use
    • Notice of limitations