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Harry Potter and the recessive characteristic. Wizards and muggles, its in the genes. chromosomes. gene. from father. from mother. Wizard or muggle?. Being a wizard or a muggle depends on genetics Characteristics are determined by genes that are found on chromosomes

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slide1

Harry Potter and the recessive characteristic

Wizards and muggles, its in the genes

slide2

chromosomes

gene

from father

from mother

Wizard or muggle?

  • Being a wizard or a muggle depends on genetics
  • Characteristics are determined by genes that are found on chromosomes
  • Individuals have two sets of chromosomes, one set from the mother the other set from the father
  • Therefore for a particular gene each individual will have two copies, one from the mother and one from the father
slide3

Muggle allele (M)

Wizard allele (m)

Wizard or muggle?

  • Genes can have different forms called alleles, eg wizard allele or muggle allele
  • The muggle allele is assigned the letter ‘M’ and the wizard allele is assigned ‘m’
  • It is this combination that determines whether you are a wizard or a muggle
  • To be a wizard you must have mm
  • A muggle can have MM or Mm
slide4

(mm)

Wizard or muggle?

The Malfoys

Narcissa Malfoy

Lucius Malfoy

(mm)

Draco Malfoy

(mm)

  • The Malfoys are a “pure-blood” family
  • All their ancestors are wizards and therefore they only have mm
slide5

(mm)

Wizard or muggle?

The Potters

James Potter (mm)

Lily Potter (mm)

Harry Potter

  • Both Harry’s parents had magical ability, so they must both have been mm
  • Harry will have received an ‘m’ from each parent
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Wizard or muggle?

The Weasleys

  • They are all pure-bloods so they all have mm and are wizards
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Mm

Mm

mm

Wizard or muggle?

  • Hermione is a witch with powerful magical abilities but she does not come from a pure-blood family
  • Neither of her parents had magical abilities
  • What were her parents’ genes?
  • They must have both been Mm

Hermione Granger (mm)

slide8

father

mother

Mm

mm

mm

Wizard or muggle?

  • Tom riddle is “half-blood”
  • His mother had magical abilities but his father was a muggle
  • What combination of alleles must Tom’s father have?

Tom Riddle (mm)

slide9

Wizard or muggle?

  • Filch is a “squib”
  • Both his parents were wizards and therefore mm
  • This means that Filch must also be mm but he has no magical abilities
  • Why is this so?
  • One possibility is that he has a mutation that has resulted in the genes not working
  • Another possibility is that some environmental factor has affected his wizard genes working
  • Or is his father really his father? Hmmm…

Argus Filch (mm)

Wizard or not?

slide10

children (mm)

Wizard or muggle?

  • What if Ron and Hermione got together?
  • What sort of children would they have?

Hermione (mm)

Ron (mm)

slide11

Ron (mm)

m

m

m

Hermione (mm)

m

Wizard or muggle?

  • We can use a punnet square to predict the characteristics of the next generation (offspring)
  • The alleles of each parent are placed on the sides
  • All the different combinations are worked out
  • Remember only one allele is passed on, but it is totally random and each has the same chance

mm

mm

mm

mm

All children must be mm!

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Wizard or muggle?

Some terminology

  • GENOTYPE is the combination of alleles eg Mm or mm or MM
  • PHENOTYPE is the characteristic that we observe eg muggle or wizard
  • HOMOZYGOUS is when both the alleles are the same eg MM or mm
  • HETEROZYGOUS is when the two alleles are different eg Mm
  • PURE-BREED is another word for homozygous
  • HYBRID is another word for heterozygous
  • DOMINANT is the trait you see when either type of allele is present-muggle
  • RECESSIVE is the trait you see only when both alleles are the same type-wizard
slide13

children (?)

Wizard or muggle?

  • What if Ginny and Dudley got together? What would their children be like?
  • Dudley is related to Harry but is definitely not a wizard. He is homozygous.

Ginny Weasley (mm)

Dudley Dursley (MM)

slide14

Dudley (MM)

M

M

m

Ginny (mm)

m

Wizard or muggle?

  • Ginny will only be able to pass on ‘m’
  • Dudley will only be able to pass on ‘M’

Mm

Mm

Mm

Mm

All children (100%) will be heterozygous and muggles!

slide15

M

m

M

m

Wizard or muggle?

  • What wizarding alleles would you expect Hermione’s brothers and sisters to have?
  • Remember Hermione is a “muggle-born”. What must her parents have been?
  • They both must have been heterozygous.

Mr Granger (Mm)

MM

Mm

¾ (75% chance) would be a muggle

¼ (25% chance) would be a wizard

Mrs Granger (Mm)

Mm

mm