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Figure 7.1 Control of an alarm system PowerPoint Presentation
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Figure 7.1 Control of an alarm system
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  1. Set Sensor ¤ On Off Memory Alarm element Reset Figure 7.1 Control of an alarm system

  2. A B Figure 7.2 A simple memory element

  3. Load A B Output Data TG1 TG2 Figure 7.3 A controlled memory element

  4. Reset Set Q Figure 7.4 A memory element with NOR gates

  5. Q S R Q R a b Q a (no change) 0 0 0/11/0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 Q b S (a) Circuit (b) Truth table t t t t t t t t t t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 R 0 1 S 0 1 Q ? a 0 1 Q ? b 0 Time (c) Timing diagram Figure 7.5 A latch built with NOR gates

  6. ( ) Q t + 1 Clk S R ¢ R R Q 0 x x Q( t ) (no change) 1 0 0 Q( t ) (no change) Clk 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 Q 1 1 1 x Q S S ¢ S Clk (a) Circuit (b) Truth table R Q 1 Clk (d) Graphical symbol 0 1 R 0 1 S 0 1 ? Q 0 1 ? Q 0 Time (c) Timing diagram Figure 7.6 Gated SR latch

  7. S Q Clk Q R Figure 7.7 Gated SR latch with NAND gates

  8. ( ) Clk D Q t + 1 S ( ) Q t 0 x D 1 0 0 (Data) Q 1 1 1 (b) Truth table Clk Q Q D R (a) Circuit Clk Q t t t t (c) Graphical symbol 1 2 3 4 Clk D Q Time (d) Timing diagram Figure 7.8 Gated D latch

  9. t su t h Clk D Q Figure 7.9 Setup and hold times

  10. Master Slave Q Q m s Q Q D D Q D Clk Clk Clock Q Q Q (a) Circuit Clock D Q m Q D Q = Q s Q (b) Timing diagram (c) Graphical symbol Figure 7.10 Master-slave D flip-flop

  11. Q D Clock Q (b) Graphical symbol 1 P3 P1 2 5 Q Clock 6 Q P2 3 4 P4 D (a) Circuit Figure 7.11 A positive-edge-triggered D flip-flop

  12. Q D D Q a Clock Q Q Clk a Q D Q b (b) Timing diagram Q Q b Clock (a) Circuit Q Q D D c Q Q Q c a Q b Q c Figure 7.12 Comparison of level-sensitive and edge-triggered

  13. Preset D Q Clock Q Clear (a) Circuit Preset Q D Q Clear (b) Graphical symbol Figure 7.13 Master-slave D flip-flop with Clear and Preset

  14. Preset Q Clock Preset Q Q D Q D Clear Clear (b) Graphical symbol (a) Circuit Figure 7.14 Positive-edge-triggered D flip-flop with Clear and Preset

  15. Figure 7.15 Synchronous reset for a D flip-flop

  16. Q T Q Q D Q (c) Graphical symbol T Q Q ( ) Q t + 1 T ( ) 0 Q t Clock ( ) 1 Q t (a) Circuit (b) Truth table Clock T Q (d) Timing diagram Figure 7.16 T flip-flop

  17. J Q D Q K Q Q Clock (a) Circuit Q ( t + 1 ) J K 0 0 Q ( t ) J Q 0 1 0 1 0 1 K Q 1 1 Q ( t ) (b) Truth table (c) Graphical symbol Figure 7.17 JK flip-flop

  18. Q Q Q Q 1 2 3 4 In Out Q Q Q Q D D D D Clock Q Q Q Q (a) Circuit Q Q Q Q = Out In 1 2 3 4 t 1 0 0 0 0 0 t 0 1 0 0 0 1 t 1 0 1 0 0 2 t 1 1 0 1 0 3 t 1 1 1 0 1 4 t 0 1 1 1 0 5 t 0 0 1 1 1 6 t 0 0 0 1 1 7 (b) A sample sequence Figure 7.18 A simple shift register

  19. Parallel output Q Q Q Q 3 2 1 0 Q Q Q Q D D D D Q Q Q Q Serial Clock Shift/Load input Parallel input Figure 7.19 A simple shift register

  20. 1 Q Q Q T T T Clock Q Q Q Q Q Q 0 1 2 (a) Circuit Clock Q 0 Q 1 Q 2 Count 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 (b) Timing diagram Figure 7.20 A three-bit up-counter

  21. 1 Q Q Q T T T Clock Q Q Q Q Q Q 0 1 2 (a) Circuit Clock Q 0 Q 1 Q 2 Count 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 (b) Timing diagram Figure 7.21 A three-bit down-counter

  22. Clock cycle Q Q Q 2 1 0 Q changes 1 0 0 0 0 Q changes 2 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 3 0 1 1 4 0 0 1 5 1 0 1 6 1 0 1 7 1 1 1 8 0 0 0 Table 7.1 Derivation of the synchronous up-counter

  23. 1 Q Q Q Q T T T T Q Q Q Q 0 1 2 3 Clock Q Q Q Q (a) Circuit Clock Q 0 Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Count 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 1 (b) Timing diagram Figure 7.22 A four-bit synchronous up-counter

  24. Enable Q Q Q Q T T T T Clock Q Q Q Q Clear Figure 7.23 Inclusion of enable and clear capability

  25. Enable 1 D Q 0 0 0 D Q 0 1 1 D Q 0 2 2 Load Clock Clock (a) Circuit Clock Q 0 Q 1 Q 2 Count 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 (b) Timing diagram Figure 7.26 A modulo-6 counter with synchronous reset

  26. 1 Q Q Q T T T Q Q Q 0 1 2 Clock Q Q Q (a) Circuit Clock Q 0 Q 1 Q 2 Count 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 (b) Timing diagram Figure 7.27 A modulo-6 counter with asynchronous reset

  27. Enable 1 D Q 0 0 0 D Q 0 1 1 BCD D Q 0 0 2 2 Q D 0 3 3 Load Clock Clock Enable Clear D Q 0 0 0 D Q 0 1 1 BCD 1 D Q 0 2 2 D Q 0 3 3 Load Clock Figure 7.28 A two-digit BCD counter

  28. Q Q Q 0 1 n – 1 Q Q Q D D D Q Q Q Reset Clock Figure 7.30 Johnson counter

  29. Figure 7.31 Three types of storage elements in a schematic

  30. Data Clock Latch Figure 7.32 Gated D latch generated by CAD tools

  31. Figure 7.34 Timing simulation of storage elements

  32. LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; LIBRARY altera ; USE altera.maxplus2.all ; ENTITY flipflop IS PORT ( D, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Resetn, Presetn : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC ) ; END flipflop ; ARCHITECTURE Structure OF flipflop IS BEGIN dff_instance: dff PORT MAP ( D, Clock, Resetn, Presetn, Q ) ; END Structure ; Figure 7.35 Instantiating a D flip-flop from a package

  33. LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY implied IS PORT ( A, B : IN STD_LOGIC ; AeqB : OUT STD_LOGIC ) ; END implied ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF implied IS BEGIN PROCESS ( A, B ) BEGIN IF A = B THEN AeqB <= '1' ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; Figure 7.36 Implied memory

  34. LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY latch IS PORT ( D, Clk : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC) ; END latch ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF latch IS BEGIN PROCESS ( D, Clk ) BEGIN IF Clk = '1' THEN Q <= D ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; Figure 7.37 Code for a gated D latch

  35. LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY flipflop IS PORT ( D, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC) ; END flipflop ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF flipflop IS BEGIN PROCESS ( Clock ) BEGIN IF Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' THEN Q <= D ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; Figure 7.38 Code for a D flip-flop

  36. LIBRARY ieee; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all; ENTITY flipflop IS PORT ( D, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC ) ; END flipflop ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF flipflop IS BEGIN PROCESS BEGIN WAIT UNTIL Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' ; Q <= D ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; Figure 7.39 Code for a D flip-flop using WAIT UNTIL

  37. LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY flipflop IS PORT ( D, Resetn, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC) ; END flipflop ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF flipflop IS BEGIN PROCESS ( Resetn, Clock ) BEGIN IF Resetn = '0' THEN Q <= '0' ; ELSIF Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' THEN Q <= D ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; Figure 7.40 D flip-flop with asynchronous reset

  38. LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY flipflop IS PORT ( D, Resetn, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC) ; END flipflop ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF flipflop IS BEGIN PROCESS BEGIN WAIT UNTIL Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' ; IF Resetn = '0' THEN Q <= '0' ; ELSE Q <= D ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; Figure 7.41 D flip-flop with synchronous reset

  39. Figure 7.42 The lpm_ff parameterized flip-flop module

  40. Figure 7.43 An adder with registered feedback

  41. Figure 7.44 Timing simulation

  42. LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; LIBRARY lpm ; USE lpm.lpm_components.all ; ENTITY shift IS PORT ( Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Reset : IN STD_LOGIC ; Shiftin, Load : IN STD_LOGIC ; R : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(3 DOWNTO 0) ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(3 DOWNTO 0) ) ; END shift ; ARCHITECTURE Structure OF shift IS BEGIN instance: lpm_shiftreg GENERIC MAP (LPM_WIDTH => 4, LPM_DIRECTION => "RIGHT") PORT MAP (data => R, clock => Clock, aclr => Reset, load => Load, shiftin => Shiftin, q => Q ) ; END Structure ; Figure 7.45 Instantiation of the lpm_shiftreg module

  43. LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY reg8 IS PORT ( D : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 DOWNTO 0) ; Resetn, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 DOWNTO 0) ) ; END reg8 ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF reg8 IS BEGIN PROCESS ( Resetn, Clock ) BEGIN IF Resetn = '0' THEN Q <= "00000000" ; ELSIF Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' THEN Q <= D ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; Figure 7.46 Code for an eight-bit register with asynchronous clear

  44. LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY regn IS GENERIC ( N : INTEGER := 16 ) ; PORT ( D : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(N-1 DOWNTO 0) ; Resetn, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(N-1 DOWNTO 0) ) ; END regn ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF regn IS BEGIN PROCESS ( Resetn, Clock ) BEGIN IF Resetn = '0' THEN Q <= (OTHERS => '0') ; ELSIF Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' THEN Q <= D ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; Figure 7.47 Code for an n-bit register with asynchronous clear

  45. LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY muxdff IS PORT ( D0, D1, Sel, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC ) ; END muxdff ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF muxdff IS BEGIN PROCESS BEGIN WAIT UNTIL Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' ; IF Sel = '0' THEN Q <= D0 ; ELSE Q <= D1 ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; Figure 7.48 Code for a D flip-flop with a 2-to-1 multiplexer on the D input