ANGRYAUNTUNCLEBABY [related signs: son/daughter] BEDROOM-[box / room] BRUSH-TEETHCRYEXCUSE-[forgive / variation: lay-off / pardon FEELFRIEND HAPPYHELPHURT [pain, injury]IDEA-[variation: SUPPOSE, if]LOVESADSORRY-[apologize, regret] STOPWANT-[desire / variation: don't-want ]WASHCL:V-[stand, walk-to, lay down, toss-and-turn, dive, jump, skate board, scooter, get up] Lesson 4: Vocabulary
Non-Manual Markers • In groups of 3-4 • Pull out a sheet of paper • #1: What does NMM stand for? • #2 List as many NMM’s as your group can come up with.
Iconicity in Sign Language • The form of the word or sign conveys the meaning of the word or sign. • In the 70’s, iconicity was considered sub-standard and a language that was considered highly iconic was not a real language (Lidell, 2003). • Now, it is realized that iconicity is a characteristic of all languages, spoken and signed.
Examples • Emotion signs, HAPPY, ANGRY and FEEL, occur on the chest • Cognitive signs, THINK, KNOW and UNDERSTAND, occur on or near the temple • Why are signed languages more “iconic” than spoken languages?
Inflection/Adverbs • ASL often creates "adverbs" by simply inflecting existing signs. • What is an "adverb?" • Adverbs are units of language that are used to change the meaning of verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.ASL adverbs can be signs, facial expressions, modifications (changes) in the way we move a sign, or modifications in the length of time we hold a sign in one place .
Examples • For example, suppose our friend got sunburned badly and I wanted to tell you about it, I might wish to express the concept:"His face was very red."In that sentence the word "very" is an adverb. The word "red" is an adjective.In ASL I'd use the signs: "HIS FACE RED." To indicate the concept of "very red" I would "inflect" (change the way I signed) the concept "red"
6 Ways to Create an Adverb • 1. Use an intense facial expression2. Hold the initial handshape in starting location for a fraction of an instant longer before starting the movement.3. Do a larger downward movement.4. Hold the ending handshape in the ending location for a fraction of an instant longer than normal.5. At the beginning of the sign tilt your head back slightly and then as you do the sign nod your head using a single, short, quick movement.6. Your elbow should stick slightly farther out to the side at the beginning of the sign and bring the elbow down sharply during the sign. • One or more can be used at the same time.
Reversal of Orientation • In groups of 3-4 • Come up with three or more signs that can be negated by changing their orientation.
Classifiers • Signs that are used to represent general categories or "classes" of things. • They can be used to describe the size and shape of an object (or person). • They can be used to represent the object itself, or the way the object moves or relates to other objects (or people). • Another definition is: "A set of handshapes that represent classes of things that share similar characteristics."
Classifier Web Page • The following page is a great location to see classifiers being used. • http://www.jalc.edu/ipp/Classifiers/ • Be prepared to show an example of the “V” classifier.