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Defining Layer 2.5 . Alan Carlton Interdigital Communications alan.carlton@interdigital.com. Objectives. To stimulate a discussion on the preferred 802.21 Mobility Architecture To stimulate a discussion on the scope of 802.21

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defining layer 2 5

Defining Layer 2.5

Alan Carlton

Interdigital Communications

alan.carlton@interdigital.com

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide2

Objectives

  • To stimulate a discussion on the preferred 802.21 Mobility Architecture
  • To stimulate a discussion on the scope of 802.21
  • To review Typical Mobile System architecture approaches as they may pertain to the broad objectives of 802.21

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide3

Mobile System Terminology Used in this Presentation

  • Two key modes exist for typical mobile systems - IDLE mode and CONNECTED mode:
    • IDLE mode (STA) characteristics
      • No User service, monitoring of paging channels, available service request channels
      • 100% of Receiver available for Downlink Measurements
      • Background coordination, unscheduled AP/technology reselection
    • CONNECTED mode (STA) characteristics
      • Active User service (e.g. a call), Handover possible
      • Limited Receiver availability for measurements (User service takes priority)
      • Fully Coordinated, scheduled AP/technology handover
  • Selection:
      • Prior to entering IDLE mode (e.g. at Power up) the STA must perform selection in order to determine the best AP and technology available for service
  • Reselection:
      • While in IDLE mode (i.e. No User service) the STA must continuously examine neighbor AP (and different technology AP). Upon determination of a ‘better’ AP the STA will transition over to the new AP
  • Handover
      • While in CONNECTED mode (i.e. Active User Service) a handover occurs upon transition from one AP to another AP (possibly using a different technology) offering significantly better service. In the ideal case this transition will occur without noticeable interruption of the Active User Service.

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide4

GSM/900

AP

GSM1800

GSM900

GSM900

AP

AP

AP

AP

EDGE

The Cellular Mobility Model

e.g. Switch, Server

Network

Handover Policy Function

e.g. 2G BSC, 3G RNC

Full Mobility Support

Radio Network

Semi-Static Frequency Assignments

AP

GSM900

AP

FDD

e.g. GSM Base Station

e.g. FDD Node B

Cellular STA

e.g. 2G MS, 3G UE

Centralized Radio Resource Management Approach

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide5

The Cellular Mobility Model (Continued)

  • Radio Network Characterization:
    • Centralized RRM approach (Semi-Static Frequency assignments in each AP)
    • Some Radio Planning Required
  • IDLE Mode Operation:
    • Intra-technology (e.g. GSM to GSM)
      • AP Selection/Reselection decision made in STA supported by System information broadcast by the Handover Policy function (Policy defined in the Handover Policy function)
    • Inter-technology (e.g. GSM to FDD/WCDMA)
      • AP Selection/Reselection decision made in STA supported by System information broadcast at the Handover Policy function (Policy defined in the Handover Policy function)
  • CONNECTED Mode Operation:
    • Intra-technology
      • AP handover decision made in the Handover Controller function supported by measurements made by the STA and sent to the Handover Policy function via L3 signaling (Policy defined in the Handover Policy function)
    • Inter-technology
      • AP handover decision made in the Handover Policy function supported by measurements made by the STA and sent to the Handover Policy function via L3 signaling (Policy defined in the Handover Policy function)

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide6

802.11b

802.11a

AP

AP

802.11

AP

AP

AP

802.16

802.11n

The WLAN Mobility Model - Current

e.g. Gateway, Router

Network

Limited Mobility Support

Radio Network

Dynamic Frequency Assignments

802.11a

802.11

AP

AP

IEEE 802.X STA

Distributed Radio Resource Management Approach

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide7

The WLAN Mobility Model (Continued)

  • Radio Network Characterization:
    • Distributed RRM approach (Dynamic Frequency assignments in each AP)
    • Radio Planning Not Required
  • IDLE Mode Operation:
    • Intra-technology (e.g. 802.11a to 802.11a)
      • AP Selection/Reselection decision made autonomously in STA (Policy defined in the STA)
    • Inter-technology (e.g. 802.11 to 802.16)
      • SELECTION/RESELECTION NOT STANDARDIZED – SCOPE OF 802.21
  • CONNECTED Mode Operation:
    • Intra-technology
      • HANDOVER NOT STANDARDIZED – SCOPE OF 802.21
    • Inter-technology
      • HANDOVER NOT STANDARDIZED – SCOPE OF 802.21

General Scope of 802.21

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide8

Network

The WLAN Mobility Model – Enhanced (802.21)

e.g. Gateway, Router

DISTRIBUTED Handover Policy Function

CENTRALIZED Handover Policy Function

STA ONLY

SYSTEM

Option A

Option B

Enhanced Mobility Support (802.21)

Radio Network

Dynamic Frequency Assignments

802.11b

802.11a

802.11

802.11a

AP

AP

AP

802.11

AP

AP

AP

AP

802.16

802.11n

IEEE 802.X STA

Two Basic Options Are Considered

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide9

Option A & Option B Definition

  • IDLE Mode Operation:
    • Intra-technology (e.g. 802.11a to 802.11a)
      • AP Selection/Reselection decision made autonomously in STA (Policy defined in the STA)
    • Inter-technology (e.g. 802.11 to 802.16) [SCOPE OF 802.21]
      • Option A: AP Selection/Reselection decision made autonomously in STA (Policy defined in the STA)
      • Option B: AP Selection/Reselection decision made in STA supported by System information broadcast at the Handover Policyfunction level (Policy defined in the Handover Policy Function)
  • CONNECTED Mode Operation:
    • Intra-technology [SCOPE OF 802.21]
      • Option A: AP handover decision made autonomously in STA (Policy defined in the STA)
      • Option B:AP handover decision made in the Handover Policyfunction supported by measurements made by the STA and sent to the Handover Policyfunction via new signaling mechanisms (Policy defined in the Handover Policy Function)
    • Inter-technology [SCOPE OF 802.21]
      • Option A: AP handover decision made autonomously in the STA (Policy defined in the STA)
      • Option B:AP handover decision made in the Handover Policyfunction supported by measurements made by the STA and sent to the Handover Policyfunction via new signaling mechanisms (Policy defined in the Handover Policy Function)

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide10

Option A: DISTRIBUTED Handover Policy Function

  • Intra/Inter Technology Reselection decision made autonomously by the STA
    • Adequate but sub-optimal solution
  • Intra/Inter Technology Handover decision made autonomously by the STA
    • Slow Handover Solution /Really just an extension of Reselection and would be characterized as such in a typical Mobile system
    • Break and then Make strategy (Resource availability not guaranteed)
    • Adequate solution for non real-time services
    • Unacceptable solution for real time services (such as voice)
    • Poorly scaleable solution

Local MIB

802.11 Model

MAC Sublayer ME

MAC Sublayer

Handover Policy Function

PLCP Sublayer

Physical Sublayer ME

PMD Sublayer

STA Functional Architecture Concept

Option A Provides a Very Limited Mobility Solution

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide11

Option B: CENTRALIZED Handover Policy Function

Handover

  • Intra/Inter Technology Reselection decision supported by System Information
    • Optimal solution
  • Intra/Inter Technology Handover decision coordinated by RPF and supported by measurement reports and System signaling
    • Fast Handover Solution
    • Make and then Break strategy (Resource availability is guaranteed)
    • Adequate solution for non real-time services
    • Acceptable solution for real time services (such as voice)
    • Easily scaleable solution

System Info

Measurements

802.11 Model

System HPF

MAC Sublayer ME

MAC Sublayer

Layer 2.5 Signaling/Control Function

PLCP Sublayer

Physical Sublayer ME

PMD Sublayer

STA Functional Architecture Concept

Option B Provides a Full Mobility Solution – Typical Mobile System Architecture Approach

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide12

IEEE 802.xx STA

IP

e.g. Mobile IP

Convergence

Layer 2.5

IEEE 802.21

IEEE 802.2

LLC

Transparent Mode Option

MAC

Physical

GSM RR

3G RRC

IEEE 802.3,11,16…

Typical Mobile System Architecture compared to 802.X

GPRS (2G) STA

3GPP (3G) STA

IP

IP

Mobility Protocol (MM)

Mobility Protocol (MM)

Convergence

Convergence

Network

GSM 04.18

3GPP 25.331

RLC

RLC

Transparent Mode Option

Transparent Mode Option

Data Link

MAC

MAC

Physical

Physical

Physical

User Plane

User Plane

Control Plane

Control Plane

In a Full Mobility Solution Layer 2.5 is a key enabler

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide13

Both Functions are required in order to support a Full Mobility Solution

Key Protocol Functions

Mobility Protocol

Resource Control Protocol

(e.g. GSM-MM/MAP, Mobile IP…)

(e.g. GSM-RR, 3GPP RRC, L2.5?)

  • Discovery
  • Registration
  • Tunneling
  • Termination (or Paging)
  • Handover at Network Level
  • Security
  • System Information
  • Termination (or Paging)
  • Cell Selection/Reselection
  • Establishment
  • Release
  • Measurement Reporting
  • Power Control
  • Handover at Radio Level

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide14

Network

Example: End to End Functional Configuration

CENTRALIZED Handover Policy Function

802.11

802.11a

AP

IEEE 802.X STA

802.11a

AP

e.g. Gateway, Router

AP

Station Function

Network/Radio Network Functions

Higher Layers

Higher Layers

Mobility Protocol

Mobility Protocol

U-Plane

U-Plane

Layer 2.5

Layer 2.5

Handover Policy Function

LLC

Link Layer

MAC

MAC

Lower Layers

Lower Layers

Physical

Physical

The RHF may be defined as logical functional entity

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications

slide15

Conclusions

  • The Option B architecture with a centralized Handover Policy Function would seem to be the most promising approach and is recommended.
  • In order to provide a full mobility solution both Radio Mobility (e.g. GSM RR) and Network Mobility (e.g. Mobile IP) protocol functionality is required in the system.
  • Layer 2.5 is a key enabler in a full mobility solution.
  • In order to support the Option B Architecture 802.21 should define a Layer 2.5 Signaling and Control Protocol with some similar properties to RR style protocols currently used in typical Mobile systems.
  • The Handover Policy Function may be defined as a logical entity. It is not necessary to define any restrictions in the Standard on its location in a physical implementation though some recommendations may be made if valuable.
  • The Option B architecture closely maps to well proved typical Mobility System architectures and will simplify future advanced interworking scenarios unanticipated at this time (e.g. tightly coupled handover).
  • The Centralized Handover Policy Functional architecture may be easily extended to support Wireless to Wired interworking scenarios e.g. the Handover policy upon connecting a Wireless device to a Wireline system may be automatic handover.

Alan Carlton, Interdigital Communications