Use Shaping EffectivelyChapter 1425 Essential Skills and Strategies for the Professional Behavior Analysis Stacey Matarazzo-Dinburg
Shaping, Shaping, Always Shaping! • FABA tagline: T-shirt available at fabaworld.org
Examples of Accidental Shaping • Teacher reinforcing the “Ooo Ooo kid.” • “Daddy’s Girl” • “I’m too busy”
Another example • Single Lady What is learned here?
Shaping • In each of these examples behavior analytic principles operated to increase the likelihood of the inappropriate behavior to occur again. • The laws of behavior carry on no matter who we are. • These kind of interactions happen all the time, and add up to create lots of accidently reinforced behavior.
Shaping and Difficult People Its hard to work with these folks. The Drama Queen The Complainer The Know-it-all
Ethics of Shaping • The well-grounded behaviorist: • Is calm and in charge. • Doesn’t allow the difficult people to get them angry. • WHY? • Because we know that their behavior is a result of their prior history. • We know how behavior works. • We can easily identify those who are going to be problematic. • We have the power of deliberate shaping!
Ethics of Shaping • “Applying what you know about the basic principles of behavior to the people around you is in YOUR, and THEIR best interest.”
Develop the Shaping Habit • Shaping as a habit: • Comes naturally. • “unconsciously”, not reported verbally. • There will be many opportunities to practice, but it is best to start out small. • Select one or two people, and one or two behaviors. • Try to increase the chance that a particular response will occur more often, or at a specific time.
Develop the Shaping Habit • Shaping Agreement behavior: • Start with something in which the individual will agree with. • Show empathy. (It must be really tough for you) • Match and mirror behavior. (sighs, small movements) • Relate a short story. (I once had a friend in the same situation….) • Present your proposal slowly and carefully. • Reinforce any signs of agreement with a head nod, smile, or confirming comment. • Attempt to make them laugh.
Develop the Shaping Habit • Be on your toes. • Be prepared. • Be focused. • If at first you don’t succeed show them your “blank face”. • Ignore any negative feedback. • Wait a few seconds. • Return to the proposal. (while smiling and nodding) • With time, shaping should become automatic; a good habit.
Everyday Behavior Shaping Who else can we use our shaping powers on? Your Friends Your Spouse Your Mother in law Your Professor
Everyday behavior Shaping • The effect of shaping can be powerful if done correctly. • Do not use shaping to promote your own personal agenda. (Friend buying you beer.) • Select behaviors that are in the individuals best interest. • Make shaping look natural. (Not manipulative.) • Goals must be honorable and justifiable.
Everyday Behavior Shaping • “You will be far more effective if you can develop the habit of looking for behaviors to reinforce where ever you go.” • Instead of engaging in thought-less responses to problematic behavior, choose a “systematic consistent plan to reinforce closer approximations to considerate, and responsible behavior”.
Everyday Shaping Behavior • Those who will be carrying out treatment plans are often insightful and responsive to shaping procedures. • The best form of shaping is that which is delivered concurrently with their attempts. • Shaping parents as mediators. • Positive verbal praise. • Eye contact. • Smiles. • Descriptive feed back.
Now It’s Your Turn • How have you used shaping in your career or personal life? • How did it work? • What did you learn? • Questions?