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The Microbial World. Prokaryotes Vs. Eukaryotes. Mircrobes of the Ocean. Primary Producers. Are the organisms that produce bio-mass from inorganic compounds (autotrophs). -Photosynthetic autotrophs Phytoplankton – Cyanobacteria Algae Diatoms Dinoflagellates Plants

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primary producers
Primary Producers

Are the organisms that produce bio-mass from inorganic compounds (autotrophs).

-Photosynthetic autotrophs

Phytoplankton –

Cyanobacteria

Algae

Diatoms

Dinoflagellates

Plants

-Chemosynthetic autotrophs – release energy from chemical compounds such as H2S & CH4

Archaea – (Hydrothermal vents)

Bacteria – nitrosomonas and nitrobacter

-Heterotrophs – energy from organic matter

by respiration “Decomposers”

Bacteria

Fungi

phytoplankton
Phytoplankton
  • photosynthesizing microscopic organisms (autotrophs) that inhabit the upper sunlit layer of almost all oceans and bodies of fresh water
  • They form the base of the ocean food chain.
  • phytoplankton are a diverse group, incorporating protists eukaryotes and both bacterial and archaebacteria prokaryotes
slide7

CONSUMERS

Aerobic

respiration

Zooplankton

Animals

Oxygen

Consumed by

Aerobic

respiration

Consumed by

Die

Wastes

DECOMPOSERS

PRIMARY PRODUCERS

Chemo-synthetic

bacteria

Anaerobic

bacteria

Aerobic bacteria

and fungi

Photo-synthesizers

Die

Cyanobacteria

Phytoplankton

Multicellular algae

Plants

Aerobic

metabolism

Fermentation

Consumed by

Nutrients released

Nitrogen

Sulfur

Phosphorus

Carbon dioxide

Stepped Art

Fig. 6-6, p. 131

bacteria
Bacteria
  • General characteristics
    • simple, prokaryotic organization: no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, few genes, cell wall
    • Can live in both aerobic(with O2) and anaerobic (without O2) environments
    • reproduce asexually by binary fission
    • many shapes and sizes
      • bacillus—rod shape
      • coccus—spherical shape
      • Spirillum – cork screw shape
bacteria1
Bacteria
  • Bacteria usually have one of three different cell shapes

Coccus

(Sphere-shaped)

Ex: Streptococcus

Bacilli

(rod-shaped)

Ex: Lactobacillus

Spirillum

(Spiral-shaped)

Ex: Spirillium

cyanobacteria blue green bacteria
Cyanobacteria (blue-green bacteria)
  • Photosynthetic bacteria which are found in environments high in dissolved oxygen, and produce free oxygen
  • Usually found in low depths of ocean
  • Contain chlorophyll a and b
  • First photosynthetic organisms on earth
cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria
  • Form associates called stromatolites—a coral-like mound of microbes that trap sediment and precipitate minerals in shallow tropical seas – 3.2 billion years old
algal blooms
Algal Blooms
  • algal bloom (large concentrations of aquatic microorganisms usually phytoplankton)
  • Caused by cyanobacteria or dinoflagellates that are often green, but they can also be other colors such as yellow-brown or red
    • high concentrations
    • Can produce some of the most powerful toxins known harmful algal blooms (HABs), which are red tides caused by the ProtistDinoflagellates or Diatoms
      • Mass killings the production of neurotoxins which cause mass mortalities in fish, seabirds, sea turtles, and marine mammals
      • human illness or death via consumption of seafood contaminated by toxic algae
algal blooms1
Algal Blooms
  • algal bloom (large concentrations of aquatic microorganisms usually phytoplankton)
  • Caused by cyanobacteria or dinoflagellates that are often green, but they can also be other colors such as yellow-brown or red
    • high concentrations
    • Can produce some of the most powerful toxins known harmful algal blooms (HABs), which are red tides caused by the ProtistDinoflagellates or Diatoms
      • Mass killings the production of neurotoxins which cause mass mortalities in fish, seabirds, sea turtles, and marine mammals
      • human illness or death via consumption of seafood contaminated by toxic algae
nitrogen fixation
Nitrogen Fixation
  • Nitrogen fixation: process that converts molecular nitrogen dissolved in seawater to ammonium ion
    • major process that adds new usable nitrogen to the sea
    • only some cyanobacteria and a few archaeons with nitrogenase (enzyme) are capable of fixing nitrogen
nitrification
Nitrification
  • Nitrification: process of bacterial conversion of ammonium (NH4+) to nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) ions
    • bacterial nitrification converts ammonium into a form of nitrogen usable by other primary producers (autotrophs)
    • Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter
slide17

NITRIFICATION

NITROGEN FIXATION

Dissolved

nitrogen (N2)

Animal wastes

recycled by

microorganisms

Nitrogen-fixing

bacteria,

cyanobacteria

Ammonia (NH3)

+Hydrogen (H2)

Ammonium (NH4+)

2 N

Bacteria +Oxygen (O2)

+Hydrogen (H2)

Nitrite (NO2–)

Ammonia (NH3)

Bacteria +Oxygen (O2)

Nitrate (NO3–)

Microorganisms

Marine

plants

Phytoplankton

Algae

Stepped Art

Fig. 6-11, p. 135

other photosynthetic bacteria
Other photosynthetic bacteria
  • anaerobic green and purple sulfur and non-sulfur bacteria do not produce oxygen
  • the primary photosynthetic pigments are bacteriochlorophylls
  • sulfur bacteria are obligate anaerobes (tolerating no oxygen)
  • non-sulfur bacteria are facultative anaerobes (respiring when in low oxygen or in the dark and photosynthesizing anaerobically when in the presence of light)
heterotrophic bacteria
Heterotrophic bacteria
  • decomposers that obtain energy and materials from organic matter in their surroundings
  • return many chemicals to the marine environment through respiration and fermentation
  • Aerobic Respiration
    • Organic matter + O2 ---> CO2 + H2O + chemical energy
  • Anaerobic Respiration
    • Organic matter + H+ ---> CH4 + chemical energy
symbiotic bacteria
Symbiotic Bacteria
  • Many bacteria have evolved symbiotic relationships with a variety of marine organisms
  • Endosymbiotic theory
    • Mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved as symbionts within other cells
  • Chemosynthetic bacteria live within tube worms and clams
  • Some deep-sea or nocturnal animals host helpful bioluminescent bacteria
    • photophores
    • embedded in the ink sacs of squid
symbiotic bacteria1
Symbiotic Bacteria
  • Anglerfish have light emitting symbiotic bacteria in dorsal appendage
archaea
Archaea
  • General characteristics
    • small (0.1 to 15 micrometers)
    • prokaryotic
    • adapted to extreme environmental conditions: high and low temperatures, high salinities, low pH, and high pressure
    • formerly considered bacteria
    • differences from bacteria
      • cell walls lack special sugar-amino acid compounds in bacterial cell walls
      • cell membranes contain different
      • lipids, which help stabilize them
      • under extreme conditions

Hydrothermal vents

slide23

Archaea

  • Nutritional Types
    • archaea includes photosynthesizers, chemosynthesizers and heterotrophs
    • most are methanogens: anaerobic organisms that metabolize organic matter for energy, producing methane as a waste product
    • halobacteria (photosynthetic), thrive at high salinities
  • Hyperthermophiles
    • organisms that can survive at temperatures exceeding 100o C, such as near deep-sea vents
    • Potential for biomedical and industrial application