Autonomous parallel parking alex braun sergey katsev
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Autonomous Parallel Parking Alex Braun & Sergey Katsev. Overview. Objectives User Interface Algorithms Utilized Hardware Hardware Design Current Status. Objectives/Performance Specs. Follow a reflective track Receive user commands over a wireless interface Leave track and parallel park

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Autonomous parallel parking alex braun sergey katsev
Autonomous Parallel ParkingAlex Braun & Sergey Katsev


  • Objectives

  • User Interface

  • Algorithms

  • Utilized Hardware

  • Hardware Design

  • Current Status

Objectives performance specs
Objectives/Performance Specs

  • Follow a reflective track

  • Receive user commands over a wireless interface

  • Leave track and parallel park

  • Leave parking space and reacquire track

  • Minimum parking space 2 car lengths

  • Travel speed .5 – 1 foot per second

  • Capable of following any turns greater than vehicle turning radius


  • Vehicle:

    • 1:12 Scale model of a Lincoln Navigator

    • Chassis and drive motor from original RC car

    • Steering implemented with Futaba S3003 Servo motor

  • Power

    • 9.6V rechargeable NiCad battery pack

    • Voltage regulators used to provide 5V power to electronics and isolate power planes

User interface
User Interface

  • Remote control used to issue user commands

  • Vehicle responds with actions and LED status lights

  • Remote uses 9V battery

User interface1
User Interface

  • Status lights will indicate:

    • Current operating mode:

      • Manual

      • Automatic

        • Looking for track

        • Following track

        • Looking for Space

        • Parking

        • Parked

      • Error

    • Waiting for user parking override

      • “Turn Signal”

Sensor layout
Sensor Layout

  • IR arrows show direction of beam

  • Wireless interface used for remote control user commands (more later)

Algorithms track following
Algorithms – Track Following

  • Front sensors used to determine when to turn

  • Two turning angles

  • Rear sensors used when acquiring the track and as a backup if all front sensors are lost

Algorithms parking
Algorithms – Parking

  • Minimum parking spot size 2 car lengths

  • Algorithm iterates if can not fit in spot in one motion

Algorithms parking basic algorithm
Algorithms – Parking(Basic Algorithm)

Utilized hardware
Utilized Hardware

  • Processing:

    • Onboard HCS12

  • Sensors

    • Track Sensors

      • Fairchild QRE00034 Infrared Reflective Sensor

      • Used with a comparator to provided digital input to the HCS12

Utilized hardware1
Utilized Hardware

  • Speed Sensor

    • Fairchild QRE00034 Infrared Reflective Sensor

    • Used with a comparator and a shaft encoder to produce a timer interrupt every quarter revolution of the rear wheels

Utilized hardware2
Utilized Hardware

  • Collision Detection

    • Sharp GP2D120 Infrared Distance Sensors

    • Analog value fed to HCS12 through ADC

  • Parking Space Detection

    • Sharp GP2D150A Infrared Distance Sensor

    • Provides digital detection at ~15cm

Power consumption
Power Consumption


Estimated Maximum Power Consumption

DC Motor


Servo Motor


Curb and Vehicle Collision Sensors

0.30W x 4 = 1.2W

Parking Space Sensor


Track Sensors

.2W x 5 = 1W

Vehicle Speed Sensor


Wireless Receiver




Misc ICs and LEDs

~ .2W x 10 = 2W




  • Ribbon cable used to connect HC12 to PCBs

  • PCBs stacked to maximize available board space

  • Final product will (hopefully) fit inside original vehicle cover

Hardware drive electronics
Hardware – Drive Electronics

  • Motor draws 1.6A max.

  • Texas Instruments SN754410 Quad Half H-Bridge used.

  • 1A sustained load capacity, 2A peak load (per half H-bridge)

  • Two H-bridges used in parallel

H-bridge functional schematic

Hardware wireless interface
Hardware – Wireless Interface

  • Ming 4-bit Tx/Rx

  • 300MHz AM

  • Uses Holtek Encoder and Decoder chips

  • Remote contains 74LS922 Key matrix decoder with debounce protection

Hardware sensor input conditioning
Hardware – Sensor Input Conditioning

  • Two quad binary comparator circuits

  • Threshold set at 4.0V, established experimentally

  • Separate voltage regulator

  • Will contain HC12 inputs for all digital sensors



Retail Price

Actual Price

Vehicle Assembly



Track Sensors (5 total)



Collision Detection (4 total)



Parking Space Detection



Wireless Kit


















Current vehicle status1
Current Vehicle Status


Rear track sensors

Front Track Sensors

DC Motor

Steering Servo





  • Speed Controller – “Pseudo” Shaft Encoder

  • Heat Dissipation – May have to place a second voltage regulator in parallel for drive electronics

  • HCS12 operates differently in DBUG12 mode than it does in LoadEE mode, so tracing code is practically impossible

Testing methodology
Testing Methodology

  • Unit testing of both software and hardware units

  • Unit integration and system-wide testing

  • Extensive operation to ensure proper burn-in

  • For code: “Desk Checks” by the person who didn’t write the code


  • Thank you!