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Religion . Key Issues Where are religions distributed? Why do religions have different distributions? Why do religions organize space in distinctive patterns? Why do territorial conflicts arise among religious groups? .

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Religion

Religion

Key Issues

Where are religions distributed?

Why do religions have different distributions?

Why do religions organize space in distinctive patterns?

Why do territorial conflicts arise among religious groups?



The roots of religion
The Roots of Religion ever good”- Coach Mike Blackman; Baptist Preacher

  • Animism (Shamanism) -the belief that all objects, animals, and beings are “animated” or possess a spirit and a conscious life. Also called shamanism because of the prominence of a Shaman.

  • Such beliefs are common among hunter-gatherers. These were the first people

  • 10% of Africans follow such traditional ethnic religions.

  • These beliefs are losing ground to Christianity and Islam throughout Africa.

Nigerian Shaman


Key issue 1 where are religions distributed
Key Issue 1: Where are religions distributed? ever good”- Coach Mike Blackman; Baptist Preacher

  • There are 2 types of religions:

    • Universalizing- religions that attempt to be global and appeal to all people.

      • The 3 main universalizing religions are:

        • CHRISTIANITY- BUDDHISM-ISLAM

      • The other two main universalizing religions other than the above three are:

        • Sikhism 24 million followers, 21 of which are clustered in the Punjab region of India.

        • Bahá’í 7 million followers dispersed across the globe.


World distribution of religions
World Distribution of Religions ever good”- Coach Mike Blackman; Baptist Preacher


Geographical distribution of major world religions
Geographical Distribution Of Major World Religions ever good”- Coach Mike Blackman; Baptist Preacher


World population by religion
World Population by Religion ever good”- Coach Mike Blackman; Baptist Preacher


Major religious hearths
Major Religious Hearths ever good”- Coach Mike Blackman; Baptist Preacher


Diffusion of universalizing religions
Diffusion of Universalizing Religions ever good”- Coach Mike Blackman; Baptist Preacher

Each of the three main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth.


Universalizing religions
Universalizing Religions ever good”- Coach Mike Blackman; Baptist Preacher

  • Branches-(Large Fundamental Divisions in religion)

    • Catholic- Protestant- Greek Orthodox

  • Denominations (Groups within a branch)

    • Roman Catholic- Baptist-

  • Sects (Smaller groups that have broken away)

    • Ultra Catholic- Southern Baptist- Amish


  • CHRISTIANITY- 2 billion followers in N. and S. America, Europe, Australia, and some Asian and African countries.

    • 50% Roman Catholic,

    • 25% Protestant,

    • 10% Eastern Orthodox

    • 15% miscellaneous.

  • About 90% of the Western Hemisphere is Christian.

  • 95% Roman Catholic in Latin American

  • 50% Protestant in the U.S.


Universalizing christianity
Universalizing Christianity Europe, Australia, and some Asian and African countries.

  • Origin: Jesus of Nazareth- 4BCE 29 CE

    • Off shoot of Judaism- Semitic Hearth (Israel) Prophet was seen as the messiah, Monotheistic- Bible

  • Diffusion: Expansion and Relocation

    • 2 Billion today- largest

    • 312 CE Rome Adopted it

    • Colonial Efforts

    • 90% of the western Hemisphere

  • Branches:

    • Roman Catholic- Largest Original piece 830 million

      • Hierarchal Religion- No real denominations

      • Vatican City- Rome- Autonomous

    • Protestant- 503 Million- 25%

      • Broken into denominations- Baptist, Methodist, Lutherans, Pentecostal- 15th century Reformation

    • Eastern Orthodox- 1054 CE- 192 million- 14 self governing Churches

      • Russian Orthodox is the largest- Constantinople- “Great Schism”

  • Cultural Landscape:

    • Cathedrals- Middle Ages

    • Baroque Church- Catholic

    • Plain Wooden Church- Protestant

    • Cemeteries


Diffusion of christianity
Diffusion of Christianity Europe, Australia, and some Asian and African countries.

Christianity diffused from Palestine through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast and North Africa.


More detail on the diffusion of christianity
More Detail on the Diffusion of Christianity Europe, Australia, and some Asian and African countries.


Christian branches in europe
Christian Branches in Europe Europe, Australia, and some Asian and African countries.

Protestant denominations, Catholicism, and Eastern Orthodoxy are dominant in different regions of Europe – a result of many historic interactions.


The religious situation in europe 1560
The Religious Situation in Europe, 1560 Europe, Australia, and some Asian and African countries.


Population loss in germany during the thirty years war
Population Loss in Germany During the Thirty Years War Europe, Australia, and some Asian and African countries.


Christianity in the u s
Christianity in the U.S. Europe, Australia, and some Asian and African countries.


  • ISLAM- 1.3 billion followers in Middle East, Indonesia, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh.

    • Core of beliefs is based on the 5 pillars of faith:

      • There is no god worthy of worship other than the one God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God.

      • A Muslim must pray 5 times daily facing the city of Mecca.

      • A Muslim gives generously to charity, as an act of purification and growth.

      • A Muslim fasts during the month of Ramadan, as an act of self-purification.

      • If physically and financially able, a Muslim makes a pilgrimage to Mecca.

    • The two main branches of Islam are Sunni (83%) and Shiite (16%).


Universalizing islam
Universalizing Islam Pakistan, India, Bangladesh.

  • Origin: Muhammad 600 CE

    • Medina, Saudi Arabia, 1.2 billion

    • Monotheistic- Quran

  • Diffusion:

    • Africa, Europe and Asia through Military Conquest

    • Led to the crusades and ongoing trouble in Africa

    • Mostly located in Asia and Africa

  • Branches:

    • Sunni- “Orthodox”- 85% Also in Bangladesh and Pakistan- Caliph of the Umayyad and Ottoman are elected “Ayatollah”

    • Shiite- Majority in Iran- Descendents from Muhammad

  • Cultural Landscape:

    • Mosque- four minarets- different from Christian churches

    • Geometric patterns- images banned

    • Mecca- Kaaba, Medina, Dome of the Rock


Islam
Islam Pakistan, India, Bangladesh.

  • D

  • R

  • A

  • F

  • T

  • Daily Prayer

  • Ramadan

  • Alms

  • Faith

  • Travel to Mecca (Hajj)



Prophet: and US 301N in Orangeburg Muhammad

Holy Text: Koran

Reading the Koran, Brunei

  • Islamic Calender

  • Begins in AD 622 when Muhammad was commanded to Mecca from Medina (Hijra).

  • Lunar calendar makes Ramadan move through the seasons (30 year cycle - 19 years with 354 days and 11 with 355).


Diffusion of islam
Diffusion of Islam and US 301N in Orangeburg

Origin – Mecca 613 a.d.

Prophet’s death in 1632

Military expansion

Combined with hierarchical diffusion (social)

Created an Arab empire

Trade as important as religion

Culture, not just religion


Diffusion of islam1
Diffusion of Islam and US 301N in Orangeburg

Islam diffused rapidly and widely from its area of origin in Arabia. It eventually stretched from southeast Asia to West Africa.


Distribution of shia and sunni muslims
Distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims and US 301N in Orangeburg


Hajj and US 301N in Orangeburg


  • BUDDHISM- 365 million followers in China and S.E. Asia mainly.

    • Based on the 4 Noble Truths:

      • All living beings must endure suffering.

      • Suffering, which is caused by a desire to live, leads to reincarnation.

      • The goal of all existence is to escape from suffering and the endless cycle of reincarnation into Nirvana (a state of complete redemption), which is achieved through mental and moral self-purification.

      • Nirvana is attained through an Eightfold Path that stresses rightness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, and meditation.

    • The branches of Buddhism are Mahayana (56%), Theravada (38%), and Tantrayana (6%).


Universalizing buddhism
Universalizing Buddhism mainly.

  • Origin: Siddhartha Gautama- 644 BCE

    • Based off Hinduism

    • Indo-Gangetic Hearth- Indus and Ganges rivers

    • North East former India- Nepal

  • Diffusion: China, to Korea, Japan, Tibet along the silk road

    • Practically extinct in its mother country

    • 350 Million world wide

  • Primary Branches:

    • Theravada- 55% Monastic- Southeast Asia- Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia- god

    • Mahayana- 40% Meditation and Prayer- Teacher- Korea, Japan, Vietnam, China

    • Lamaism- Tibet- Combination- Dali Lama was exiled here by China

    • Zen- Japanese- Shinto and Buddhism

  • Cultural Landscape-

    • Pagoda

    • Bodhi Tree


Buddhism
Buddhism mainly.

  • B

  • E

  • E

  • N

  • N

  • Buddha

  • Enlightenment

  • Eightfold Path

  • Noble Truths

  • Nirvana


  • The perfect proportions of the Buddha’s body corresponds to the design of religious monuments. Its architecture developed from the pre-Buddhist Indian grave-mound. Under these mounds the saintly ascetic were buried; their bodies were seated on the ground and covered with earth. These dome-shaped graves, or tumuli, of the saints were regarded as holy places. And were destinations for pilgrimage for the devotional and places of practice for meditators.


  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=47CW9LU7yeE to the design of religious monuments. Its architecture developed from the pre-Buddhist Indian grave-mound. Under these mounds the saintly ascetic were buried; their bodies were seated on the ground and covered with earth. These dome-shaped graves, or tumuli, of the saints were regarded as holy places. And were destinations for pilgrimage for the devotional and places of practice for meditators.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EAY2km3Oa0s


Major religions of asia
Major Religions of Asia to the design of religious monuments. Its architecture developed from the pre-Buddhist Indian grave-mound. Under these mounds the saintly ascetic were buried; their bodies were seated on the ground and covered with earth. These dome-shaped graves, or tumuli, of the saints were regarded as holy places. And were destinations for pilgrimage for the devotional and places of practice for meditators.


Diffusion of buddhism
Diffusion of Buddhism to the design of religious monuments. Its architecture developed from the pre-Buddhist Indian grave-mound. Under these mounds the saintly ascetic were buried; their bodies were seated on the ground and covered with earth. These dome-shaped graves, or tumuli, of the saints were regarded as holy places. And were destinations for pilgrimage for the devotional and places of practice for meditators.

Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and eventually China and Japan.


Buddhism1
Buddhism to the design of religious monuments. Its architecture developed from the pre-Buddhist Indian grave-mound. Under these mounds the saintly ascetic were buried; their bodies were seated on the ground and covered with earth. These dome-shaped graves, or tumuli, of the saints were regarded as holy places. And were destinations for pilgrimage for the devotional and places of practice for meditators.

Third major proselytizing religion

No longer a major presence in the country of its origin


Karma - your past bad or good actions determine your progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.


Universalizing sikhism
Universalizing Sikhism progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.

  • Guru Nanak-

  • Syncretism Religion-

    • Blends two religions- Hinduism and Islam

    • 22 million- Pakistan-

  • Holy:

    • Golden Temple in Amritsar, India

    • Sikhs in Punjab Region of India

    • Guru Granth Sahib (book)


  • The second type religion progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.

    • Ethnic- religion that primarily appeals to one group of people living in one place. More closely tied to the physical geography of a particular region, especially with agriculture.


Ethnic hinduism
Ethnic Hinduism progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.

  • Origin: No founder, 900 million

    • 2000 BCE

    • Holy Book: Vedas

  • Diffusion: Indo-Gangetic Hearth

    • Relocation

  • Cultural Landscape: Polytheistic

    • Reincarnation

    • Caste System

    • Mahatma Gandhi- helped free India from England

    • Countless Shrines and temples

    • Cremation

    • Ganges River

    • Ahism


Reincarnation progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God. – the soul is immortal but the body endlessly cycles to higher or lower levels of existence.

Yoga – the practices or tools used to break from habits of past lives. Includes various meditations and physical practices.

Hindu Beliefs and Practice

  • The Purusharthas or The Four Aims of Human Life:

  • Dharma (righteousness)

  • Artha (wealth)

  • Kama (desire)

  • Moksha (salvation or liberation) – release from the endless cycles.


The trinity of brahman
The Trinity of Brahman progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.

Brahma (The Creator) - depicted with four faces each continually reciting one of the Vedas. The force of creation and birth.

Shiva (The Destroyer)

- Shakti or power; the dissolving force in life; centrifugal force; entropy.

Vishnu (The Preserver)

- peace; balance; Sustainer of life.

A hint of monotheism-

How does Christianity stack up?


Spread of hinduism
Spread of Hinduism progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.


Hinduism
Hinduism progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.

  • R

  • I

  • C

  • K

  • Reincarnation

  • India

  • Caste System

  • Karma/ Dharma


Ethnic judaism
Ethnic Judaism progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.

  • Origin: Abraham, 18 million, Oldest Monotheistic 2000 BCE

    • Semitic Hearth

    • Jerusalem

    • Christianity and Islam

    • Torah and Talmud

  • Diffusion:

    • Diaspora

    • 66% of all Jews live in Israel and the USA

    • 1948 official home land

  • Branches

    • Orthodox- traditional

    • Reformed- 1800’s- modern Judaism

    • Conservative- Moderate- the most recent

  • Cultural Landscape:

    • Synagogue

    • Star of David

    • Western Wall

      • Right next to the Dome of the Rock

    • Zionism


Ethnic shintoism and shamanism
Ethnic Shintoism and Shamanism progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.

  • Shinto- Japan- 118 Million- Syncretic- Buddhism and Shamanism

  • Shamanism- Shaman- Africa, Americas, Asia

    • Animism- Spirits of the Environment


Ethnic taoism and confucianism
Ethnic Taoism and Confucianism progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.

  • Taoism- Laozi 600 BCE

    • Feminist, Harmony, Feng shui

  • Confucius- Confucius 600 BCE

    • Worldly not heavenly

    • East Asia predominately- Most influential thought

    • Relationships


Confucianism and daiosm
Confucianism and Daiosm progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.

  • Five relationships

  • Filial Piety

  • Nature


Religious organization
Religious Organization progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.

New Religious Movements or Cults

  • New religious movement (NRM): small secretive religious groups that represent either a new religion or a major innovation of an existing faith

    • Similar to sects

    • Tend to be small

    • Viewed as less respectable than more established faiths


How do universalizing and ethnic religions differ
How do Universalizing and Ethnic Religions Differ? progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.

  • Ethnic

  • Has meaning in particular place only.

  • Unknown source.

  • Content focused on place and landscape of origin.

  • Followers highly clustered.

  • Holidays based on local climate and agricultural practice.

  • Universalizing

  • Appeal to people everywhere

  • Individual founder (prophet)

  • Message diffused widely (missionaries)

  • Followers distributed widely.

  • Holidays based on events in founder’s life.


Which type religion has more bearing on the global landscape?

How does ethnic religions try and hold their identity

Give three examples of positive influences and three negative

How is this either unsuccessful or successful in today’s culture


Key issue 2 why do religions have different distributions
Key Issue 2: Why do religions have different distributions? landscape?

  • As a general rule, universalizing religions have origins based on a specific individual’s life in the past, ethnic religions typically have either no origin or an unclear one at best.

  • Some religious origins:

    • Christianity- based on the life of Jesus

    • Islam-trace lineage back through Abraham’s other son Ishmael; based on the life of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam.

    • Buddhism- based on the life of Siddhartha Gautama, who later became Buddha (the enlightened one)

    • Sikhism- founded by Guru Nanak about 500 years ago.

  • Hindu- did not originate with a specific founder. Beginnings of Hindu date back to before recorded history. It is the oldest living religion


  • Missionaries- individuals who help to transmit a universalizing religion through relocation diffusion.

  • Pagan- followers of polytheistic religions in ancient times.

  • Ghetto- city slum designated for Jew habitation.

  • Cosmogony- creation story.

  • Solstice- day when sun is at highest or lowest point in the sky.


  • Diffusion of Religions universalizing religion through relocation diffusion.

    • Christianity spread mainly through the work of missionaries, and also by some conquest and colonization.

    • Islam spread mainly through conquest.

    • Buddhism spread mainly through missionaries and trade merchants.

  • Buddhism and Islam are the universalizing religions that place the most emphasis on identifying shrines/holy places.

    • In universalizing religions, the holy places are generally locations at which memorable events happened in the founder’s life

      • Mecca is in Islam because it is Muhammad’s birthplace.

  • Holy places in ethnic religions are often physical features that are closely tied to the religion.

    • Hindu one of the most important rituals is the bathing of oneself in the Ganges River.


Diffusion of christianity1
Diffusion of Christianity universalizing religion through relocation diffusion.


Diffusion of islam2
Diffusion of Islam universalizing religion through relocation diffusion.

Islam is considered the fastest growing religion in America. Only a small part of this growth is from black Muslims and the Nation of Islam.


Diffusion of buddhism1
Diffusion of Buddhism universalizing religion through relocation diffusion.


  • Ethnic religions rarely diffuse, and when they do, it is to a small extent.

  • universalizing religions diffuse mainly at the expense of the smaller ethnic religions, and often a semi-hybrid religion will result with concepts from both the ethnic religion and the universalizing religion intertwined.

    • Judaism is an exception in that it has diffused widely throughout the years, mainly because its people have had to flee persecution from many areas in the world.


  • Cosmogony and calendars also differ betwixt universalizing religions and ethnic religions.

    • Ethnic religious creation stories tend to deal with the physical environment and natural events

    • Ethnic religions typically organize their calendars around the seasons, other natural events, or the physical geography.

    • universalizing religion stories often attempt to explain the mystical.

    • Universalizing religions’ main purpose in calendars is to commemorate events in the founder’s life, thus the seasons or weather are not central to the structure.


  • Syncretism - religions and ethnic religions. the mixing of two or more religions that creates unique rituals, artwork, and beliefs.

  • Examples include syncretism of Christianity and indigenous beliefs in the Americas, Africa, and Asia.

  • Caribbean Voodoo (Haiti, Louisiana)

  • Christianity in Indigenous Latin American

Voodoo Dolls, Haiti

Shrine, Bangalore, India


Syncretism - religions and ethnic religions. the mixing of two or more religions that creates unique rituals, artwork, and beliefs.


Variations in distribution of religions 2
Variations in Distribution of Religions religions and ethnic religions. (2)

Holy places

Holy places in universalizing religions

Holy places in ethnic religions

The calendar

The calendar in ethnic religions

The calendar in universalizing religions


Holy sites in buddhism
Holy Sites in Buddhism religions and ethnic religions.

Most holy sites in Buddhism are locations of important events in Buddha’s life and are clustered in northeastern India and southern Nepal.


Mecca islam s holiest city
Mecca, religions and ethnic religions. Islam’s Holiest City

Fig. Makkah (Mecca) is the holiest city in Islam and the site of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims each year. There are numerous holy sites in the city.


Hindu holy places
Hindu Holy Places religions and ethnic religions.

Hierarchy of Hindu holy places: Some sites are holy to Hindus throughout India; others have a regional or sectarian importance, or are important only locally.


Key issue 3 why do religions organize space in distinctive patterns
Key Issue 3: Why do religions organize space in distinctive patterns?

  • The distribution of religious elements on the landscape reflects the importance of religion in people’s values.

    • In Christianity, the landscape is dominated by a high density of churches. They are critical because of the emphasis placed on regularly attending worship.

    • In Islam, mosques are the places for general assembly. They are not viewed as a sanctified place but rather a convening point for the community. A mosque normally has a central courtyard surrounded by classrooms.

    • In Hinduism, temples are built within the home or individual community. They have a central room to house a spirit, with rooms for rituals, and outer purifying pools.

    • In both Buddhism and Shinto, pagodas are the common architecture. They are typically built to enshrine sacred religious artifacts.

    • In Bahá’í, the church officials decided to open seven Houses of Worship on multiple continents to stress the universality of their religion.


Religion and environment
Religion and Environment patterns?

  • Burial practices

    • Judeo-Christians bury.

    • Hindus and Buddhists cremate.

  • Relationship with nature

    • Sacred Spaces

    • Sacred architecture

    • Role of religion in domination of earth?

    • The disposing of the dead differs from religion to religion. Some prefer to bury while others choose to cremate.


  • Religion often influences the place-names of certain regions.

    • Ex. The vast amount of places named for saints in predominantly Roman Catholic Quebec.

  • Hierarchical religion- well-defined geographic structure with a high degree of organization.

    Ex. The Roman Catholic Church

    • Diocese- the basic geographic unit of the R.C.C.

  • Autonomous religions- self-sufficient religions with little organization.

    Ex. Islam prefers to unify by faith rather than specific boundaries.

  • Most ethnic religions are autonomous. Protestant faiths vary.


  • Organization of space
    Organization of Space regions.

    Places of worship

    Christian worship

    Places of worship in other religions

    Sacred space

    Disposing of the dead

    Religious settlements

    Religious place names

    Administration of space

    Hierarchical religions

    Locally autonomous religions


    Place names in qu bec
    Place Names in Québec regions.

    Place names in Québec show the impact of religion on the landscape. Many cities and towns are named after saints.


    Roman catholic hierarchy in u s
    Roman Catholic Hierarchy in U.S. regions.

    Fig. 6-13: The Catholic church divides the U.S. into provinces headed by archbishops. Provinces are divided into dioceses, headed by bishops.


    Hierarchical religions
    Hierarchical Religions regions.

    A hierarchical religion has a well-defined geographic structure and organizes territory into local administrative units, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Latter-Day Saints (Mormons)

    Pope Cardinal Archbishop Bishop Priest



    Roman provinces
    Roman Provinces regions.




    Key issue 4 why do territorial conflicts arise among religious groups
    Key Issue 4: Why do territorial conflicts arise among religious groups?

    • RELIGION IS ARGUABLY THE MOST VOLITALE OF ALL HUMAN RELATIONS AND THE SOURCE OF MOST VIOLENCE THROUGHOUT HISTORY.

    • Fundamentalism- the literal interpretation and strict intense adherence to one’s religious principles.

      • Fundamentalists try to return society to its religious ways. The most obvious example is the Taliban in Afghanistan.

    • Caste- the class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu was assigned according to religious law.


    Religious conflicts
    Religious Conflicts religious groups?

    Religion vs. government policies

    Religion vs. social change

    Religion vs. Communism

    Religion vs. religion

    Religious wars in the Middle East

    Religious wars in Ireland


    Secularism and theocracy
    Secularism and Theocracy religious groups?

    • Secularism- movement away from religion controlled life

    • Theocracy- opposite- government is run by a religion

      • Afghanistan- Taliban

      • Iran- Ayatollah


    Conflict
    Conflict religious groups?

    • “There has been more evil done in the name of God then ever good”- Coach Mike Blackman; Baptist Preacher

    • Interfaith Boundaries- Divide between two or more religions

      • China- Tibet Buddhism vs. Chinese Atheism

      • Nigeria- Islam vs. Christianity

      • India- Sikhism vs. Hinduism- Punjab region

      • India and Pakistan- Hinduism and Islam- 1947

      • Former Yugoslavia- Serbia- Christians vs. Muslims- 1990’s

      • Palestine- Jews vs. Muslims


    Intrafaith conflicts
    Intrafaith Conflicts religious groups?

    • Iraq- Sunni and Shiite- Govt control

    • USA- Fundamentalist and Moderate liberal- Homosexuality, Evolution, abortion (SNL the Devil)

    • Northern Ireland- IRA- Protestants and Catholics- Irish Independence


    Social impact of religion
    Social Impact of Religion religious groups?

    • Gender roles

      • Women’s rights

    • Diet

      • Vegetarians

      • Pork, beef

      • Alcohol

    • Ethics and morals

    • Schools and institutions

    World Distribution of Hogs


    What the Bible says about Women's Rights religious groups?

    • Genesis 3:16

    • Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.

    • 1 Corinthians 14:34-36

    • Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience as also saith the law. And if they will learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church.

    • Ephesians 5:22-24

    • Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the saviour of the body. Therefore as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing.

    • Colossians 3:18

    • Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as it is fit in the Lord.

    • 1 Timothy 2:11-15

    • Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. For Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression. Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing.

    • Titus 2:4-5

    • Teach the young women to be ... obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.

    • 1 Peter 3:1

    • Likewise, ye wives, be in subjection to your own husbands.

      The Quran

    • 2:228 "(Women) have rights similar to those (of men) over them in kindness, and men are a degree above them."

    • 2:282 "And call two witness from among your men, two witnesses. And if two men be not at hand, then a man and two women."

    • 4:3 "Marry of the women, who seem good to you, two or three or four."

    • 4:11 "To the male the equivalent of the portion of two females, and if there be women more than two, then theirs is two-thirds of the inheritance, and if there be one (only) then the half."

    • 4:34 "Men are in charge of women, because Allah hath made the one of them to excel the other, and because they spend of their property (for the support of women). So good women are the obedient, guarding in secret that which Allah hath guarded. As for those from whom ye fear rebellion, admonish them and banish them to beds apart, and scourge them."

    • 4:176 "Unto the male is the equivalent of the share of two females."

    • 24:31 "And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent, and to draw their veils over their bosoms, and not to reveal their adornment save to their own husbands. ... And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment."

    • 33:30 "O ye wives of the Prophet! Whosoever of you committeth manifest lewdness, the punishment for her will be doubled, and that is easy for Allah."

    • 33:32-33 "O ye wives of the Prophet! Ye are not like any other women. ... Stay in your houses."

    • 33:53 "When ye ask of them (the wives of the Prophet) anything, ask it of them from behind a curtain. That is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not for you to cause annoyance to the messenger of Allah, nor that ye should ever marry his wives after him. Lo! that in Allah's sight would be an enormity."

    • 33:59 "O Prophet! Tell thy wives and thy daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks close round them (when they go abroad)."

    • 66:5 "If he [Muhammad] divorce you, will give him in your stead wives better than you, submissive (to Allah), believing, pious, penitent, devout, inclined to fasting, widows and maids


    • Religion is nearly always suppressed in communist countries.

      • Leaders believe that religion has a tendency to upset stability and therefore ban it altogether, though often they just concrete the people’s religious adherence instead of destroying it.

    • Other times, when people of different religions live in close proximity to one another, engage in contact often, or share interests in a particular location, especially violent interaction will occur.

      • Ex. The Middle East. Jews, Christians, and Muslims have fought for over 2,000 years to control the same small strip of land in the East Mediterranean.

      • Historically the Crusades between Christians and Muslims played out as each fought to control the Holy Lands.

      • Hostilities continue in the modern era over these same lands.


    • The controversy in Ireland occurred when predominantly Catholic South Ireland wished to secede from predominantly Protestant Great Britain.

      • However, the northernmost six counties of Ireland are overwhelmingly Protestant and wished to remain part of the U.K.

      • When the split occurred a small number of Roman Catholics in both N. Ireland and the Republic of Ireland joined the Irish Republican Army (IRA), a militant organization devoted to achieving Irish unity by whatever means necessary.

      • A Protestant organization has formed in return.

        • Violence continues as extremists from both sides disrupt the lives of peaceful civilians.

        • “Bloody Sunday” – U2


    Distribution of protestants in ireland 1991
    Distribution of Protestants in Ireland, 1991 Catholic South Ireland wished to secede from predominantly Protestant Great Britain.

    When Ireland became independent in 1937, 26 northern districts with large Protestant populations chose to remain part of the United Kingdom.


    Distribution of catholics in belfast
    Distribution of Catholics in Belfast Catholic South Ireland wished to secede from predominantly Protestant Great Britain.


    Boundary changes in palestine israel
    Boundary Changes in Palestine/Israel Catholic South Ireland wished to secede from predominantly Protestant Great Britain.


    Topics of discussion
    Topics of Discussion Catholic South Ireland wished to secede from predominantly Protestant Great Britain.

    Religious culture regions, diffusion & distribution

    Religious ecology, or the relationship between religion and the physical environment

    How do different people view and use their environment?

    What imprint do different religions leave on their environment?

    Relationship between religion and culture, economic and political systems

    Religious conflicts


    Religious conflict
    Religious Conflict Catholic South Ireland wished to secede from predominantly Protestant Great Britain.

    • The Big Question: Can secular society exist alongside traditional and fundamentalist religious sects and states?

    • We are quick to notice fundamentalism abroad (i.e. Salman Rushdie’s death sentence by Shia clerics) and not so quick to recognize it at home (abortion clinic bombings; Southern Baptist Convention’s calls for women to submit to their husbands’ authority).

    • American evangelical Christianity and Islamic fundamentalism are the two most influential fundamentalist movements in the world.

    • Fewer and fewer states are governed by an official church.


    Key concepts
    Key Concepts Catholic South Ireland wished to secede from predominantly Protestant Great Britain.

    Methods of religious diffusion

    Cultural hearth of a religion

    Animistic religion

    Ethnic religion

    Universal or universalizing religion

    Sacred space

    Pilgrimages

    Religious toponyms

    Religious branch

    Religious denomination

    Religious sect

    Menifacts

    Sociofacts

    Artifacts

    Shia & Sunni Muslims

    Shintoism

    Hierarchical religions

    Ecclesiae

    Religious cults



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