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Global Perspectives on Health. Session 3 The Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Measuring Health Status Dr. Kate Tairyan, MD, MPH. Learning Objectives. Describe the determinants of health Define the most important health indicators

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Global perspectives on health

Global Perspectives on Health

Session 3

The Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Measuring Health Status

Dr. Kate Tairyan, MD, MPH


Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Describe the determinants of health

  • Define the most important health indicators

  • Discuss the differences between incidence and prevalence; morbidity, disability, and mortality; and non-communicable and communicable diseases


Determinants of health
Determinants of Health

  • Why are some people healthy and some not healthy?

  • What determines health?

  • Is it possible to control/influence determinants?


Global perspectives on health

“State of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity” WHO


Global perspectives on health

Physical and Social Environment and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

Health Behaviors/Lifestyle

Health

Individual characteristics

Access to Health Services

Determinants of Health


Determinants of health1
Determinants of Health and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

  • Individual

    • Genetic make up

    • Sex

    • Age


Determinants of health2
Determinants of Health and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

  • Environment

    • Physical

      • Water

      • Sanitation

      • Air pollution

    • Social

      • Socio-economic status

      • Education

      • Social Capital

      • Culture

      • Gender


Determinants of health3
Determinants of Health and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

  • Health Behaviors/Lifestyle


Determinants of health4
Determinants of Health and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

  • Access to Health Services

    • Availability of services

    • Barriers to access

    • Quality and safety of services

    • Government Policies, Programs in Health Sector


Key health indicators
Key health Indicators and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

  • Life Expectancy

  • Infant Mortality (under age 1)

    • Neonatal Mortality (younger than 28 days)

  • Maternal Mortality

  • Under Five or Child Mortality

  • Disability

  • Morbidity


Trends in life expectancy by region
Trends in Life Expectancy, by Region and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

Life Expectancy at Birth, in Years

Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (medium scenario), 2005.


Child mortality by wealth
Child Mortality by Wealth and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

Deaths Under Age 5 per 1,000 Live Births

Source: Population Reference Bureau, Population & Economic Development Linkages 2007 Data Sheet.


Global perspectives on health

Map of Maternal Mortality, Worldwide and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

2000

Maternal deaths per 100,000 Live Births

Source: WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA, Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA, 2004.


Global perspectives on health

Maternal Mortality, by Region and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

2000 Estimates

Pregnancy and childbirth-related deaths per 100,000 live births

Source: WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA, Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA, 2004.


Incidence and prevalence

and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

Incidence

(new cases)

Prevalence

(existing cases)

Death, recovery

Incidence and Prevalence

  • Incidence – New Cases

  • Prevalence – Existing Cases


Few words about disease classification
Few words about disease classification and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

  • Communicable diseases – caused by infection agent, pathogen, are spread from human to human, from animals to human (directly or not-directly)

  • Non-communicable – multiple causes, stroke, diabetes

  • Acute and chronic

  • Injuries


So what
So What? and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

  • Global health indicators are improving overall in the world

  • But not in all places, not for all social groups and not at the same speed


Determinant of health joke of the day
Determinant of Health: Joke of the day and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

The Japanese eat very little fat and suffer fewer heart attacks than the Canadians, British, Australians or Americans.

The Mexicans eat a lot of fat and suffer fewer heart attacks than the Canadians, British, Australians or Americans.

The Chinese drink very little red wine and suffer fewer heart attacks than the Canadians, British, Australians or Americans.

The Italians drink excessive amounts of red wine and suffer fewer heart attacks than the Canadians, British, Australians or Americans.

The Germans drink a lot of beer and eat lots of sausages and fats, and suffer fewer heart attacks than the Canadians, British, Australians or Americans.

Conclusion: Eat and drink what you like. Speaking English is apparently what kills you 


Thank you
THANK YOU ! and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

? Questions ?