EnglishB50 Wednesday 2/13/13
Reading Quiz Who is Celia Foote? Why doesn’t Celia want Johnny to know about Minny? Aibileen tells Skeeter, “I know how to make the teapot stop rattling.” What does that mean? Why does Skeeter volunteer to get library books for Aibileen? At first Aibileen is the only maid Skeeter can convince to talk to her for the book. Who is the second maid who joins in?
Discussion Question Look at Celia’s interactions with Minny. How are they different from the other employee/employer relationships depicted in the novel? What do you think accounts for those differences?
Questioning a Text We’ve talked about approaching reading as though listening to a conversation. Listening to a text is like waiting your turn to talk while questioning a text is responding through interrogation and talking back. Questioning doesn’t mean only fault-finding. You want to make a careful an exact evaluation of the text as a whole.
Examining Ethos • Ethos is the author’s credibility or trustworthiness. • We can see this through content, word choice, tone, organization, and other such clues. • We should ask questions like • Does this writer seem knowledgeable? • What are this writer’s biases and values? • What seems to be this writer’s mood? • What is the writer’s approach to the topic?
Claims • The author’s thesis statement is the claim of the argument. • It is the main point that the author hopes to convince the audience of. • Reasons are then given to support the claims. • Once you’ve identified claims and reasons, you should ask yourself some questions. • Are the reasons adequate? • Do they really support the claim?
Evidence and Assumptions • Evidence comes in the form of source material in support of a claim or thesis statement. • Is the source material adequate? Is it factually correct? • Assumptions are the often unstated values or beliefs that the writer expects the readers to accept without question. • Do you and the author really share the same assumptions? • Can you accept the author’s main claim if you can’t accept the assumptions behind them?
Language • Part of questioning a text involves looking at the writer’s use of language. • Does the writer make interpretive words seem like facts? • Activity • Read and annotate “Introduction to ‘Blow-Up’” on pg. 80 of RR. • Pay special attention to word choice, tone, sentence patterns, punctuation, figurative language, levels of diction, and other language features. • Answer the following questions: • What seems to be the author’s persuasive intention in the whole article? • How does the use of language in this introduction help contribute to the author’s persuasive intentions? • Then, group up and share your analysis.
Ideology When questioning a text, you should look at its ideology, or worldview or belief system. Look for clues in binaries or opposites. When we talk about binary contrasts, one is always the “privileged”. Find out which the author prefers to get a sense of the author’s ideology. Comlete the writing and discussion activity on pg. 82 in RR.
Visual Elements and Audience Appeals • Visuals in argument are used to appeal to an audience’s emotions, values, and interests. They do so by • Setting a tone • Fostering identification between reader and content • Evoking emotions and values • Ask yourself • What purpose does the visual element seem to serve in relation to the text? • To which emotions, interests, and values does the visual element appeal? What assumptions are being made about readers’ values, interests, and emotions? • How do specific parts of the visual element work to elicit a response? How do the parts work together as a whole? • Are there other ways of reading or interpreting these elements?
Activity Look at the visual arguments on page 89 in RR. Do the writing and discussion activity in small groups, on single sheet of paper with all group members’ names on the top.
Evaluation After questioning a text, you have to be prepared to put together all of the information you have gathered to evaluate it. Remember to be open-minded. A strong rhetorical reader needs to be able to look at the world through different perspectives.
In Class Essay #1 The following slides contain various paragraphs from your in class essays. Together, we’ll talk about how they could be improved. Remember, these are anonymous, so if you see an example from your essay up here, no one will know that it’s yours except for you.
Introduction The cheese sandwich punishment discrimination is very bad, either it be due to color, sex, community, religious, money, and last but not the least is food. No one can force anything on anybody. Everyone has full right to do what they want.
Introduction #2 The article, “The Cheese Sandwich Punishment” by Richard Morosi from June 23, 3007, it talks about the debate from both sides of the sandwich punishment. It is a complex topic that is concerning people that belongs to this are. The system is not accurate in how they judge the situation of these students. An emotional problem can be caused with measures like the cheese sandwich. Students are minors, and they cannot sustain themselves at these ages. The “cheese sandwich” is a controversy for being considered a punishment.
Body Paragraph Eating a cheese sandwich daily until the debt is paid off can not be healthy or nutritious enough for these children. Students should be eating a very nutritious lunch full of healthy choices including salad, fruits, vegetables, meat, and vegetarian options for those students who do not eat meat or dairy products.
Body Paragraph #2 Cheese sandwiches is a meal most children love, why should it be looked at as a big problem. The alternative meals gives students something to eat that is healthy and doesn’t leave them with an empty stomach. There should be a variety of alternative meals so those students don’t get sick of eating just a cheese sandwich every day.