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  1. Child Development Chapter Four – Communication and Conflict Resolution Mr. Marquis

  2. The Communication Process • Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between people. • Good communication skills can help you to avoid misunderstandings with people. • Verbal communication means sending messages with words and the sound of your voice. • Nonverbal communication is sending messages without words, often through facial expressions and gestures. • People combine their verbal and nonverbal messages to communicate thoughts and feelings

  3. Barriers to Communication • It is important to be aware of barriers that can prevent messages from being sent and received as intended. • Misunderstandings and Unclear messages • Poor listening skills • Language and Culture

  4. Adapt to Communication Challenges • There are other obstacles you may encounter when trying to communicate: • Braille – people who have visual impairments can use the Braille alphabet to read with their fingertips • Sign Language – A specific set of hand signals and gestures used by and for people with hearing impairments

  5. The Messages Your Send • Body Language is a persons posture, facial expressions, gestures and way of moving • Eye Contact is a direct visual contact with another person. • Eye contact shows that you are interested, friendly and sincere

  6. The Messages You Send • An “I” Message is a statement that allows you to say how you feel and what you think. An “I” Message has three parts: • 1. “I feel…” (name an emotion, like disappointment or anger) • 2. “when you…” (say what behavior bothers you) • 3. “because…” (explain why it bothers you) • “You” messages often lead to attacks and accusations • “I” Messages help both participants stay reasonable and focused on the underlying problem.

  7. The Messages You Send • Use the right tone • Tone is the way a person says something to indicate what he or she is feeling or thinking • A positive message can sound negative if it is said with sarcasm or boredom • To express sympathy, use a gentle tone • To ask for help, use a polite tone

  8. The Messages You Send • Avoiding Mixed Messages • A mixed message occurs when you words and body language do communicate the same thing. • Mixed messages cause confusion and people find it hard to believe what you say or what they see.

  9. The Messages You Send • Time and Place • Knowing when and where to communicate can improve communication as well • Sometimes it is best to speak your mind immediately, other times it is wiser to wait • Avoid times when your emotions might hinder your message • Make sure the other person is not distracted • You are more likely to communicate effectively if both of you are calm and focused

  10. Communication Styles • The way you speak can be just as important as what you say. • Being assertive means you express ideas and opinions firmly and with confidence. Being assertive is not the same as being aggressive. • Aggressive people are overly forceful and pushy. • A passive communication style means people tend to keep their opinions to themselves and give in to the influence of others more easily.

  11. The Messages You Receive • Dealing with criticism, when it is meant to help, can help you improve a quality about yourself. • Ignore criticism that is spiteful or inaccurate. • You do not have to respond to people who make negative comments.

  12. The Messages You Receive • Active listening is concentrating on what is said so that you understand and remember the message. • Active listening strategies include: • Keeping and open mind • Controlling negative emotions • Not cutting off the speaker • Eliminating distractions • Focusing your attention • Concentrating • Listening with a purpose • Making eye contact • Avoiding judgments

  13. Feedback • Feedback occurs when a listener lets a speaker know that he or she is trying to understand the message being delivered. • A few ways to provide useful feedback include: • Interject – Do not interrupt, but when the speaker pauses, interject means to insert something into the conversation • Express – Show your interest by asking questions that lead to more conversation • Restate – In your own words, restate what the speaker said to you

  14. Thinking Map Time! • Create a Bubble Map in your Notes • In the center circle, write “Write Effective Email” • For each of the six steps below, provide your own definition or example: • Write a meaningful subject line • Do not assume privacy • Proofread • Keep messages to the point • Be careful with group email

  15. Communication and Relationships • Good communication is essential to good relationships – on a personal level, in the workplace and in society in general. • When you realize there may be a misunderstanding in communicating, try to clear the air between you and the other person as quickly as possible. • Clarification means to make something clearer with further explanation. • Many arguments can be avoided if you ask for clarification. • When you ask for clarification, you clear up misunderstandings and lessen confusion.

  16. Why Conflicts Happen • Conflict is a clash among people who have opposing ideas or interests • Some are trivial, and can be quickly resolved while others are serious and take time and effort to resolve • The worst kinds of conflict are those that lead to violence

  17. The Causes of Conflict • Poor Communication • Power Struggles happen when individuals or groups feel the need to be in control • Personality Differences – people who have different values, goals and attitudes are more likely to argue than those that do not • Jealousy – This strong emotion can cause feelings of resentment or hostility • Prejudice is an unfair judgment or opinion made without knowing all the facts

  18. Results of Conflict • Positive Results • Working to resolve a conflict is a valuable experience. • It helps to build problem-solving skills and promote effective communication. • Making an effort to resolve a conflict also strengthens a relationship. • Learning to cooperate with someone may create a better solution than insisting on having your own way.

  19. Results of Conflict • Negative results are: • Negative emotions – Anger, frustration, fear, pain, humiliation or sadness. • Stress – can lead to headaches, digestive problems, anxiety and other physical and mental problems. • Hurtful words – In the heat of anger, it is easy to say the wrong thing and hurt another person’s feelings. • Damaged relationship – Conflicts can break up families and friendships. Some family feuds are never resolved and last a lifetime. • Violence – When tempers flare, arguments can get out of hand and lead to violence. All negative effects are troubling, but violence is the most serious.

  20. Bullying • A bully is an aggressive person who intimidates, abuses or mistreats people. • A bullies motivations vary, but most will leave you alone if you show confidence and ignore their abuse. • If a bully does note stop, you need to let a teacher or other trusted adult know. • Dealing with a bully: • Show confidence • Ignore verbal abuse • Stand up for yourself • Stand up for others • Talk to an adult • Put safety before possesions

  21. Conflict Prevention • The best way to deal with conflict is to keep it from happening in the first place. • Adapt your behavior • Examine your attitude • Violence prevention • Peer education is a program that is based on the principle of teens teaching teens.

  22. Conflict Resolution • Negotiation is communication about a problem with the goal of finding a fair solution. • For negotiation to be successful, everyone who is involved must be willing to play a part. • A win-win situation is an ideal solution that benefits everyone involved and has no real drawbacks. • Other possible outcomes: • Compromise • Agree to disagree • Withdraw

  23. Conflict Resolution • Mediation is settling a conflict with the help of a neutral third party. • A mediator typically does not decie how to resolve the conflict, instead they help the parties find a fair solution. • Mediation is a good way to solve conflicts in the workplace. • Peer mediation is a process which specially trained students help other students resolve school-related conflicts peacefully.