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Subtidal Communities. Hard Bottom Kelp Forests. Figure 10.22. Subtidal Zone. The part of the continental shelf that is always covered by water from the low tide mark to the shelf break (150m or 490 ft). Subtidal Zone. Temperature varies from place to place due to its shallowness

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subtidal communities

Subtidal Communities

Hard Bottom

Kelp Forests

subtidal zone
Subtidal Zone
  • The part of the continental shelf that is always covered by water
    • from the low tide mark to the shelf break (150m or 490 ft)
subtidal zone5
Subtidal Zone
  • Temperature varies from place to place due to its shallowness
  • Bottom still affected by waves, tides and currents
  • Very productive areas – nutrients & light
subtidal zone6
Subtidal Zone
  • Hard Bottom Communities
    • Kelp Forests
    • Other: Soft Bottom Communities

Seagrass Beds (addressed later)

hard bottom subtidal communities
Hard-Bottom Subtidal Communities
  • Less common than soft-bottom
  • Submerged extension of rocky intertidal, hard parts of organisms (oyster shells, calcareous algae)
  • Sometimes called “reefs” – not coral
slide8
Kelp
  • Kelp = large brown seaweed
  • Large holdfast to hold onto the rocky bottom
  • Long stipes
  • Fronds… 20-30m (65-100ft)
  • Go through two stages in their life cycle
slide10

Laminaria

Laminaria

Alaria (edible)

kelp communities
Kelp Communities
  • Arranged in distinct layers
  • Giant kelp forms in deeper waters
    • reduced wave action
    • Forms a canopy
kelp communities14
Kelp Communities

Several species of kelp-community

fishes sheltering near giant kelp, Macrocystis.

© Galina Barskaya/ShutterStock, Inc.

figure 13 23
Figure 13.23

Kelp:

Baja, CA

kelp communities22
Kelp Communities
  • Below the effects of waves and tides, kelp communities dominate in temperate areas.

General structure of a West Coast kelp forest, with a complex

understory of plants beneath the dominant Macrocystis or Nereocystis.

kelp communities24
Kelp Communities
  • Many organisms
  • Sea Urchins = most important grazers or herbivores
sea urchins
Sea Urchins
  • What leads to population explosions?
    • Absence of their predators
    • Overfishing, less seals & sea lions, killer whales eat sea otters, more urchins
kelp communities32
Kelp Communities

Trophic relationships of some dominant members of a southern California kelp community.

kelp communities33
Kelp Communities

Trophic relationships of the common

members of a New England kelp community.